It is frequently claimed that GM foods are not properly tested, or asserted that few independent studies have been published to establish their safety. Another similar claim made is that the food regulatory agencies rely exclusively of corporate information to decide whether GM food and feed are safe. The further claim is made that very few independent tests relating to GM food safety are done.

This conventional 'wisdom' is wrong.

The modern scientific literature shows that these commonly held opinions are merely myths.  Academics Review website comprehensively shows that many of these myths are merely baseless rumours and misinformation.
Currently there are near 2000 peer-reviewed reports in the scientific literature which document the general safety and nutritional wholesomeness of GM foods and feeds.

Citations to 600+ of these published studies are collected below (scroll to Exhibit 3). Close to 30% of these publications are produced and funded by organisations that are completely independent of large commercial seed companies.
A larger consolidated paper list  (see also explanatory comment Making sense of lists of studies by Karl Haro von Mogel on 25 October 2013) has also been curated at the GENERA (Biofortified) database here.


  • A recent review on the general GM safety topic, confirming the above statement and mentioning 1783 papers, is this:


An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research.(pdf file)
Nicolia A, Manzo A, Veronesi F, Rosellini D. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2013 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print]
The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate.
We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature. We selected original research papers, reviews, relevant opinions and reports addressing all the major issues that emerged in the debate on GE crops, trying to catch the scientific consensus that has matured since GE plants became widely cultivated worldwide. The scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GE crops; however, the debate is still intense. An improvement in the efficacy of scientific communication could have a significant impact on the future of agricultural GE.
Our collection of scientific records is available to researchers, communicators and teachers at all levels to help create an informed, balanced public perception on the important issue of GE use in agriculture.
[This data set is available from the first author of the above listed document.]


From Nicolia 2013
Table 1. Classification of 1783 scientific records on GE crop safety published between 2002 and 2012. 
Topic                                                                          No. of papers 
General literature (GE gen)                                                   166  
Interaction of GE crops with the environment (GE env)      847  
Biodiversity                                                                             579  
Gene flow                                                                                268  
Gf – Wild relatives                                                                 113  
Gf – Coexistence                                                                    96  
Gf – Horizontal gene transfer in soil                                      59  
Interaction of GE crops with humans and animals
(GE food and feed)                                                               770  
Substantial equivalence                                                         46  
Non-targeted approaches to equivalence assessment   107  
GE food/feed consumption                                                 312  

Traceability                                                                            305 

Note also that by December 2010, 15 years, 81 projects, 400 teams and at least €130 million had been spent by European Union taxpayers on issues relating to GMO safety or GMO acceptance. (This is  documented in December 2010 at another GMO Pundit posting, and is described at a comprehensive European commission website.).

A summary report on this major project is available as a pdf file:EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2010 A Decade of EU-funded GMO research 

Listing papers is clearly only a start to discussions of crop safety. Carefully considered peer-reviewed safety assessments based on such published papers are needed to reach conclusions about safety of transgenic crops. Two such reviews that do this are the following. (Several others are given in links that follow, down the page.)

Assessment of GE food safety using '-omics' techniques and long-term animal feeding studies.
Ricroch AE. N Biotechnol. 2013 May 25;30(4):349-54. doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2012.12.001. Epub 2012 Dec 17.
AgroParisTech, Chair of Evolutionary Genetics and Plant Breeding, 16, rue
Claude-Bernard, 75005 Paris, France. agnes.ricroch@agroparistech.fr

Despite the fact that a thorough, lengthy and costly evaluation of genetically engineered (GE) crop plants (including compositional analysis and toxicological tests) is imposed before marketing some European citizens remain sceptical of the safety of GE food and feed. In this context, are additional tests necessary? If so, what can we learn from them? To address these questions, we examined data from 60 recent high-throughput '-omics' comparisons between GE and non-GE crop lines and 17 recent long-term animal feeding studies (longer than the classical 90-day subchronic toxicological tests), as well as 16 multigenerational studies on animals. The '-omics' comparisons revealed that the genetic modification has less impact on plant gene expression and composition than that of conventional plant breeding. Moreover, environmental factors (such as field location, sampling time, or agricultural practices) have a greater impact than transgenesis. None of these '-omics' profiling studies has raised new safety concerns about GE varieties; neither did the long-term and multigenerational studies on animals.
Therefore, there is no need to perform such long-term studies in a case-by-case approach, unless reasonable doubt still exists after conducting a 90-day feeding test. In addition, plant compositional analysis and '-omics' profiling do not indicate that toxicological tests should be mandatory. We discuss what complementary fundamental studies should be performed and how to choose the most efficient experimental design to assess risks associated with new GE traits. The possible need to update the current regulatory framework is discussed.

Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.
Snell C, Bernheim A, Bergé JB, Kuntz M, Pascal G, Paris A, Ricroch AE.2 Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar;50(3-4):1134-48. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.048. Epub 2011 Dec 3.


The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required,  a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed.
A database in spreadsheet format is available from the corresponding author on request.


  • Here is a summary of individual safety assessments in a pdf file at the Website GMO Answers:





The conclusions about extensive testing is further confirmed by the UK Biochemical Society Statement 2011:

BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY (UK)
"Genetically modified" crops, feed and food
3.6.11
All our current crop plants, and domestic and farm animals, are the result of deliberate cross breeding, which leads to genetic reshuffling, followed by selection of desirable characteristics. Although breeders have successfully practised these activities for thousands of years, it was only during the past century that we have gained a detailed understanding of the genetic and biochemical changes, which make these new breeds both genotypically and phenotypically very different from their ancestral forms.
Plant breeding, together with agrochemicals, irrigation and mechanisation, has led to dramatic increase in crop yields, which have kept pace with the burgeoning increase in global population in recent years. However, we now realise that this 'Green Revolution' put unprecedented pressure on the environment and on biodiversity. To ensure food security and adequate nutrition for a population of 9 billion by 2050 - with most of them living in the developing world-in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner, we will need to double productivity on essentially the same area of land. At the same time, we need to address concerns about modern high input agriculture, regionally declining water availability and to adapt to man-made climate change .
During the past few decades, the world has seen a revolution in our understanding of how living organisms function at the molecular, biochemical and physiological levels, culminating in the complete genome sequences of an ever increasing range of organisms, from viruses to man. This information is a vital resource for addressing many challenges: combating disease, improving human health and well-being, and enhancing food supply.
As part of this revolution, we have seen the development of plant genetic modification (GM), which allows the transfer of desirable genetic properties from one plant species - or from other organisms - into another plant species. All GM crops are subject to extensive selection testing and characterisation mandated by an elaborate regulatory regime in order to exclude any potential adverse health and "environmental" consequences before they are licensed to be grown commercially.
The majority of GM crops currently grown have been modified to provide resistance to insect pests or tolerance to benign herbicides. This enables a more targeted and efficient use of agrochemicals together with the associated benefit of 'conservation tillage'. Other GM traits that are currently being developed for regulatory approval include further improvements in resistance to pest and disease; improving the efficiency of nutrient use; tolerance to temperature extremes, drought and flooding; and biofortified crops with enhanced micronutrients to combat nutritional deficiencies, which have a dramatic effect on the health of women and children in the developing world, and are a major cause of death and disease.
The Biochemical Society recognises that GM crops are not a magic bullet that will feed the whole world or eliminate poverty. However, the application of molecular biology will allow more targeted, precise, predictable and controllable improvement of crops, and can be used in two major ways: marker-assisted breeding to develop new varieties faster and GM to introduce new traits into crop plants. These technologies must not only be applied to improve food production in major crops but also to orphan crops those of minor economic significance, and so perhaps overlooked in commercial developments, but nevertheless of great importance for specific populations, often very poor ones in the developing world eg.Cassava,Sorghum), which are a vital resource for farmers in the developing world. As a scientific society, we have a responsibility for fully evaluating and deploying these technologies where appropriate, and thus contributing to the security of future generations; unfortunately, time is not on our side.
The Biochemical Society supports the view that, while it is indeed proper to maintain a reasonable level of regulatory control, a wealth of experience and experimental data from national academies, governments and regulatory authorities has shown that the use of GM techniques presents no particular or novel hazards beyond those already encountered in agriculture. This view has just been clearly endorsed in an EU report : "According to the projects' results, there is, as of today, no scientific evidence associating GMOs with higher risks for the environment or for food and feed safety than conventional plants and organisms".

The Biochemical Society wishes to thank Chris Leaver CBE FRS FRSE Emeritus Professor of Plant Science and Emeritus Fellow of St Johns College, Oxford for his work in producing this position statement.
  United Nations (Economic and Social Affairs) 2004 'World Population to 2300' http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/WorldPop2300final.pdf
  Royal Society October 2009 'Reaping the Benefits: Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture' http://royalsociety.org/Reapingthebenefits/
  Europa December 2010 'Commission publishes compendium of results of EU-funded research on genetically modified crops' http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/10/1688&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en



  • The US FDA reports a lot of consultation and analysis of GM crop safety here:


Completed Consultations on Bioengineered Foods 
The inventory at this link. lists all completed consultations on bioengineered foods evaluated under FDA’s 1992 Statement of Policy: Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties. More information about this inventory is available on the Introduction page to the FDA List of Completed Consultations on Bioengineered Foods. We will update this information within about one month of completing a consultation. 

As part of this current GMO Pundit collection there are numerous independent published studies of GM food safety (Exhibit 2). Food and genetic technology regulatory agencies such as OGTR and FSANZ  in Australia and EFSA in Europe access all this publicly available safety literature as part of their assessment process for the safety of GM foods and feeds.

In contrast there is no strongly documented scientific validation of the safety of many conventional foods in the scientific literature -- especially relatively novel conventional foods such as kiwi fruit. There are numerous safety issues raised by conventional foods, and food safety has to be judged by comparison against this starting point, not an unattainable concept of absolute safety, whose pursuit actually can increase real harms to people. This viewpoint of the unavoidable risks from conventional food is well documented, appearing in an authoritative textbook of toxicology (C. D. Klaassen 2008, Editor. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology 7th Edition, Chapter 30, Food Toxicology).

As Drs Chassy and Tribe argue at Academics Review, for effective  Food Safety: Focus on Real Risks, Not Fake Ones
Disease microbes, nutrient shortages and lack of access are greatest threats, not biotechnology. Contamination of fish and meat with parasites, or grains with mold toxins, are also significant food health hazards (Chassy and Tribe 2010).
To quote further from a recent review: Knudsen, I., Søborg, I., Eriksen, F., Pilegaard, K., Pedersen, J., Risk Management and Risk Assessment of Novel Plant Foods: Concepts and Principles, Food and Chemical Toxicology (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.01.022
Direct quote:
"During the last two decades a lot of attention has been paid to the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms used as food. Several international reports have indicated that the safety assessment strategy recommended for genetically modified foods to a large extent also could be used for other kinds of novel foods. Another conclusion from many of these reports is that very little is known about the potential long-term health effects of any traditional food (e.g. FAO/WHO 2000). Nonetheless, most traditional foods are treated as being safe because no widespread occurrence of acute severe adverse effects is reported after their consumption. Their safety has, however, rarely, if ever, been established. While it has been commonly accepted that for example food additives should be thoroughly tested for safety prior to use in the food production in order to secure that their level in the final food product would not constitute a human health risk, foods from new plant lines or new exotic fruits and vegetables have not been evaluated to the same extent for their potential adverse effects on human health although there are several examples of risks connected to such foods."
In other words, GM foods are more rigorously assessed for safety than many conventional foods, or other new types of foods such as kiwi fruit, and exotic foods that are new to certain communities (such as quinoa from South America or nangai nuts (Canarium indicum) from Micronesia). GM crops are more highly regulated than new breeds of cereals, potatoes, or tomatoes that contain fresh germplasm from wild-plants that is often introduced into our food by conventionial breeders to provide pest resistance.

To redress the misinformation about safety testing of GM foods and feeds, four major Exhibits relating to GM food and feed safety are collected below:
  1. Key review articles on testing of GM food and feed safety, and on animal feeding trials with GM food and feed. 
  2. Link to a summary of affiliations of scientists publishing on food safety, to enable their degree of independence to be scrutinised, plus links to original papers where available.
  3. A collected list of 600+ published primary research articles including GM animal feeding tests, and papers relating directly to experimental testing of GM food safety and wholesomeness.
  4. Base-line studies on variability, risks and unpredictable outcomes from conventional breeding 
Exhibit 3 is a large document, but the point of presenting so many papers is to refute assertions that such studies are seldom published.

Important papers are bolded in the lists below.

As far as discussing GM food safety myths, Academics Review is highly recommended. Genetic Roulette, a book by Jeffrey Smith, has 65 myths in full display. The results of investigating the claims in Genetic Roulette were published in March 2010 here

One particularly important soon to be available GM crop is vitamin A fortified rice or Golden Rice. Safety issues about this crop are discussed here:

Frequently asked questions on Golden Rice
Here are answers to common questions about Golden Rice and links to relevant scientific resources from organizations working on vitamin A deficiency, plant breeding, and genetic modification.

A related topic the GMO safety is the safety analysis of double-stranded silencing RNAs. That is covered in GMO Pundit's RNAi Reader page.


Exhibit 1.
KEY GMO Pundit Posts:
Safety, safety, safety, and more GM food safety. 
(Collected professional reviews on GM food and feed safety, including an impressive septet from Food and Chemical Toxicology Journal.) 
Gene-chips prove transgenes are clean genes.
 
(Collected papers on transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and other comprehensive profiling approaches showing transgenic insertions are clean)

RNA related safety issues (collected papers and posts, also accessible via black bar at top of blog).

Molecular profiling review.

Food Safety Authority (UK)
SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF NOVEL FOODS. REPORT OF G02 RESEARCH PROGRAMME REVIEW (2005).

G02006: Metabolome technology for the profiling of GM and conventionally bred plant materials

Major new joint EU scientific report on GM food safety 
10th Sept 2008. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre released a new study entitled "Scientific and technical contribution to the development of an overall health strategy in the area of GMOs".

Its key messages are (direct quotes from Executive Summary):

  1. No demonstration of any health effect of GM food products submitted to the regulatory process has been reported so far, yet, little is known about the potential long term health effects of any food, including novel food.
  2. The safety of a GMO derived product is established relative to its conventional counterpart and is, therefore, not absolute. Conventional food is often evaluated on the base of its history of safe use.
  3. The assessment of potential toxicity commonly includes the search for similarities between the primary structure of the protein(s) introduced by genetic modification into the host organism and the structures of known toxic proteins using bio-informatics methods. In addition, the susceptibility of the newly introduced protein to conditions of food and feed processing, as well as digestion, can provide an indication of the likelihood that the consumer will be exposed to the intact protein.
  4. Repeated-dose feeding of new proteins in a subchronic experiment (e.g. for 28 days), are recommended. However, in a number of dossiers that have already been notified for regulatory approval in the EU subchronic 90-day wholeproduct feeding studies in rodents (rats) have been provided. Such studies should not be done on a routine basis, but only if there are indications to do so, such as substantial differences observed in the compositional analysis between the GM and its non-GM comparator.
  5. With respect to allergenicity a weight of evidence approach is recommended combining the outcome of various assessment methods. Various studies published in scientific literature focus on the possible allergenic effects of the market-approved GM crops. Sera binding or skin reactions have not been observed for GM crops that have been allowed onto the European market.
  6. Genes of bacterial origin in GM plants may theoretically be capable of being taken up by bacteria in the food chain. Horizontal gene transfer risks have been raised with respect to antibiotic resistance genes which may devolve to pathogenic micro-organisms thereby impairing antibiotic therapy. However, the chances of acquiring the same gene(s) from other bacterial species in the environment rather than from GMOs are considered much greater.
  7. Two points are of paramount importance to consider possible consequences for human and animal safety in the rare cases of uptake of DNA from food by mammalian cells. First, DNA sequences of various origins (plant, animal, microbia, virus) are always present in human food and farm animal feed. Therefore, most sequences to be found in GM crop plants will have entered the mammalian gut before present time. Second, it is clear that uptake is very much more probable for somatic cells (particularly those of the gut and immune systems) than for germ line cells. This may account for the almost complete lack of evidence for sequences of plant origin in mammalian genomes. Somatic cells of the gut lining have a rapid turnover, such that the most likely fate of most modified cells is to be lost in the faeces. These considerations make deleterious consequences improbable.
    Unintended effects are those not directly linked to the targeted genetic modifications (disruption in the natural function of genes); this may also occur in conventional crop breeding.
  8. Changes in the nutrient composition of GMO product may impact on human and animal nutrition; in such case in vivo feeding trials may be decided depending upon the knowledge available on those nutrients.
  9. GM crops which are metabolically engineered to produce nutrients (or other products) of interest are likely to be prone to unintended effects besides the modification of interest. In such case, advanced omics technologies can be used to identify the substance(s) linked to the transfonnation. Comparison with a conventional counterpart is used, taking into account natural background variations. Generally, it is considered that the routine application of these techniques in regulatory risk assessment requires additional harmonisation and validation, as well as development of databases for the data on background variation.
  10. Precaution is the reason for the comprehensive pre-market safety assessment and follow-up by post-market monitoring currently applied to GMOs, in order to reduce the uncertainty regarding any potential health effects of GM technology to a minimum.
  11. Current experience with long term testing of GMO carried out in the fonnal regulatory approval context, point with an appropriate : degree of certainty to the absence of potential health effects. The data evaluated for submitted GM dossiers do not indicate any harm caused by these GMOs.
  12. Most of the multigenerational feeding studies perfonned with laboratory rodents show no significant effect on testicular spennatocytes (GM soya beans), on fertility (GM potatoes), cell ultrastructure (GM soya beans) and only diet-related changes with GM canola. No uptake of transgenic DNA from gastrointestinal tract has been observed. Human experiments with GM tilapia fish showed no differences in cytological and biochemical blood composition.
GMO Pundit agrees with these judgements, and this post and others at this site provide abundant documentation of their validity.



CropLife Database of the Safety and Benefits of Biotechnology


OTHER KEY REVIEW resources on GM food nutritional safety evaluation. 


GOVERNMENT SCIENCE REVIEWUK GM Science Review: Publications

The GM Science Review Panel has concluded its work and published a first and a supplementary second report. These have been formally submitted to: Margaret Beckett, Secretary of State for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Allan Wilson MSP at the Scottish Executive, Carwyn Jones AM at the National Assembly for Wales, and Mrs Angela Smith Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Northern Ireland Office, to help inform government's decision making on GM crops and food. 

An open review of the science relevant to GM crops and food based on the interests and concerns of the public
PREPARED BY THE GM SCIENCE REVIEW PANEL (JULY 2003)

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION 
FSANZ

Herman, Rod A. William D. Price 2013 Unintended Compositional Changes in Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: 20 Years of Research. J. Agric. Food Chem., DOI: 10.1021/jf400135r




Mycotoxin content and safety of GM foods.

The benefit of Bt [GM] corn’s reduction of mycotoxin damage has been virtually ignored in policy debates anywhere in the world. As adoption of agricultural biotechnology continues to increase on a global scale, policy makers worldwide should consider the economic and health impacts of this secondary benefit of transgenic pest-protected crops. A superb recent paper by F Wu remedies deficiency in policy debate, and the following draws very heavily on F Wu's important scholarship. Reduction of mycoxin contamination is a clear parameter for food and feed safety, particularly in developing countries. Further details and extensive discussion in a GMO Pundit Post here.
  • Mycotoxin reduction in Bt corn: potential economic, health, and regulatory impacts
Abstract
Genetically modified (GM) Bt corn, through the pest protection that it confers, has lower levels of mycotoxins: toxic and carcinogenic chemicals produced as secondary metabolites of fungi that colonize crops. In some cases, the reduction of mycotoxins afforded by Bt corn is significant enough to have an economic impact, both in terms of domestic markets and international trade. In less developed countries where certain mycotoxins are significant contaminants of food, Bt corn adoption, by virtue of its mycotoxin reduction, may even improve human and animal health. This paper describes an integrated assessment model that analyzes the economic and health impacts of two mycotoxins in corn: fumonisin and aflatoxin. It was found that excessively strict standards of these two mycotoxins could result in global trade losses in the hundreds of millions $US annually, with the US, China, and Argentina suffering the greatest losses. The paper then discusses the evidence for Bt corn’s lower levels of contamination of fumonisin and aflatoxin, and estimates economic impacts in the United States. A total benefit of Bt corn’s reduction of fumonisin and aflatoxin in the US was estimated at $23 million annually. Finally, the paper examines the potential policy impacts of Bt corn’s mycotoxin reduction, on nations that are making a decision on whether to allow commercialization of this genetically modified crop.
Keywords Bt corn - economic impacts - health impacts - mycotoxin reduction - regulatory policy


Felicia Wu
Environmental, Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto St.,
Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA
Transgenic Research (2006) 15:277–289 Springer 2006
DOI 10.1007/s11248-005-5237-1
Two earlier reviews by Wu reviews of fumonisin reduction in Bt-corn, see Felicia Wu et al., The Economic Impact of Bt Corn Resulting from Mycotoxin Reduction, 23 J. TOXICOLOGY, TOXIN REVS. 397 (2004) , and Felicia Wu, Mycotoxin Risk Assessment for the Purpose of Setting International Regulatory Standards, 38 ENVTL. SCI. & TECH. 4049 (2004). 


Drew L. Kershen
FOOD DRUG LAW JOURNAL, v. 61 # 2 (June 2006) pages 197-236) published 27th June.
(A hyperlink to a full pdf copy of the review will follow within a few days courtesy of Professor Kershen)
Review

Genetically modified plants as fish feed ingredients

(Discusssed here
http://www.biofortified.org/2011/07/gmo-fish-feed-ingredients/)

ABSTRACT
Genetically modified (GM) plants were first grown commercially more than 20 years ago, but their use is still controversial in some parts of the world. Many GM plant varieties are produced in large quantities globally and are approved for use in fish feeds both in Norway and the European Union. European consumers, however, are skeptical to fish produced by means of GM feed ingredients. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of GM plants, including potential toxicity and (or) allergenicity of the novel protein, potential unintended effects, and risk of horizontal gene transfer to other species. This review will present the current state of knowledge regarding GM plants as fish feed ingredients, focusing on fish performance and health as well as the fate of the GM DNA fragments in the fish, identifying limitations of the current work and areas where further research is needed.

Nini Hedberg Sissener, Monica Sanden, Åshild Krogdahl, Anne-Marie Bakke, Lene Elisabeth Johannessen, Gro-Ingunn Hemre

a National Institute of Seafood and Nutrition Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway.
b Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Aquaculture Protein Centre, N-0033 Oslo, Norway.
c National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo, Norway.
Published on the web 23 February 2011.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2011, 68:(3) 563-574, 10.1139/F10-154


A 2012 paper from Seralini/CRIIGEN/Uninversity of Caen/Auchan/Carrefour published in Food and Chemical Toxicology** has attracted a lot of attention to the topic of GM food safety. It was finally retracted by the journal in November 2013

A good readable explanation of this paper is here:

Ashley Ng. (2012) Genetically modified corn and cancer – what does the evidence really say?, The Conversation 25 September 2012, 6.18am AEST, 

The PR-spin used to manipulate the findings is analysed here:
R. Roush and D. Tribe (2012) Modifying the message: how tricks masked home truths about anti-GM science, The Conversation 25 September 2012, 6.18am AEST , 

For serious investigators of the questions posed by this CRIIGEN report, a series of letters to the Editor in response to the intitial G -E Seralini / CRIIGEN scientific article about rat feeing tests on GM maize are now available via the  links provided at the journal’s In-press page:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/aip/02786915 and at this blog's CRIIGEN page. 

Exhibit 2.

GMO Pundit post on institutional affiliations of scientists who publish test results are listed in a GMO Pundit post hyperlinked here, which also has links to the original papers where available.

GMO Pundit post collecting independent published tests of GMO food and feed safety demonstrating Rosemary Stanton's claims on lack of tests are wrong. 


Exhibit 3.

Citation list of 600 papers that test GM food safety in animal tests or directly and systematically measure or define safety parameters, such as allergenicity or potential toxin fingerprinting:

(Updated list from the Biofortified site Genera project)

1 Aalhus, J.L., M.E.R. Dugan, K.A. Lien, I.L. Larsen, F. Costello, D.C. Roland, D.R. Best and R.D. Thacker, 2003, Effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant canola meal on swine growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Journal of Animal Science, 81:3267

2 Aeschbacher, K; Messikommer, R; Meile, L; Wenk, C, 2005, Bt176 corn in poultry nutrition: Physiological characteristics and fate of recombinant plant DNA in chickens. British Poultry Science, 84:385-394

3 Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk, 2002, Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology, 11:196

4 Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk, 2002, Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutritional Physiology, 11:196

5 Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2001. Genetically modified maize in diets for chickens and laying hens: influence on performance and product quality. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetically Modified Crops and Co-products as Feeds for Livestock, pp 41-42, September, Nitra, Slovak Republic.

6 Aeschbacher, K., R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2001. Physiological characteristics of Bt-176 corn in poultry and destiny of recombinant plant DNA in poultry products. Annals of Nutr. And Metab.45(Suppl. 1):376.

7 Alexander, T.W., R. Sharma, E.K. Okine, W.T. Dixon, R.J. Forster, K. Stanford and T.A. McAllister. 2002. Impact of feed processing and mixed ruminal culture on the fate of recombinant EPSP synthase and endogenous canola plant DNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters 214:263-269.

8 Alexander, T.W., T. Reuter, E. Okine, R. Sharma, and T.A. McAllister. 2006. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment of the fate of transgenic DNA in sheep fed Roundup Ready rapeseed meal. Br J Nutr 96(6):997-1005.

9 Alexander, T.W., T. Reuter, K. Aulrich, R. Sharma, E.K. Okine, W.T. Dixon, and T.A. McAllister. 2007. A review of the detection and fate of novel plant molecules derived from biotechnology in livestock production. Animal Feed Science and Technology 133(1-2):31-62.

10 Alexander, TW; Sharma, R; Deng, MY; Whetsell, AJ; Jennings, JC; Wang, YX; Okine, E; Damgaard, D; McAllister, TA, 2004, Use of quantitative real-time and conventional PCR to assess the stability of the cp4 epsps transgene from Roundup Ready (R) canola in the intestinal, ruminal, and fecal contents of sheep. , Journal of Biotechnology, 112:255-266

11 Álvarez-Alfageme F, von Burg S, Romeis J, 2011 Infestation of Transgenic Powdery Mildew-Resistant Wheat by Naturally Occurring Insect Herbivores under Different Environmental Conditions. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22690. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022690

12 Ames, JM, 2007, Evidence against dietary advanced glycation endproducts being a risk to human health, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 51(9):1085-1090

13 Anilkumar, B; Reddy, A Gopala; Kalakumar, B; Rani, M Usha; Anjaneyulu, Y; Raghunandan, T; Reddy, Y Ramana; Jyothi, K; Gopi, K S, 2010, Sero-biochemical Studies in Sheep Fed with Bt Cotton Plants, Toxicology International, 17(2):99-101

14 Apgar, G.A. T.A. Guthrie, K.S. Griswold, M.P. Martin, J.S. Radcliffe, and M. D. Lindemann. 2004.Nutritional value of a corn containing a glutamate dehydrogenase gene for growing pigs. J.Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):456-457. Abstract 912.

15 Appenzeller, LM; Munley, SM; Hoban, D; Sykes, GP; Malley, LA; Delaney, B, 2008, Subchronic feeding study of herbicide-tolerant soybean DP-356Ø43-5 in Sprague-Dawley rats, Food Chemistry Toxicology, 46(6):2201-2213

16 Arencibia, A; Gentinetta, E; Cuzzoni, E; Castiglione, S; Kohli, A; Vain, P; Leech, M; Christou, P; Sala, F, 1998, Molecular analysis of the genome of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants produced via particle bombardment or intact cell electroporation, Molecular Breeding, 4:99-109

17 Asanuma, Y; Jinkawa T, Tanaka H, Gondo T, Zaita N, Akashi R. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan. Transgenic Res. 2011 Feb;20(1):91-7.

18 Ash, J; Novak, C; Scheideler, SE , 2003, The fate of genetically modified protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in laying hens., Journal of Applied Poultry Research , 12(2):242-245

19 Ash, J.A., S.E. Scheideler and C.L. Novak. 2000. The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup ReadyÒ Soybeans in the Laying Hen. Poultry Sci. 79 (Suppl. 1):26. Abstract 111.

20 Atkinson, H J; Johnston, K A; Robbins, M, 2004, Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human diet, Journal of Nutrition, 134:431–434

21 Aulrich, K; Bohme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G, 2001, Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition, Archiv für Tierernaehrung (Archives of Animal Nutrition), 54:183-195

22 Aulrich, K., I. Halle and G. Flachowsky. 1998. Inhaltsstoffe und Verdaulichkeit von Maiskörnen der Sorte Cesar und der gentechnisch veränderten Bt-hybride bei Legenhennen. Proc Einfluss von Erzeugung und Verarbeitung auf die Qualität laudwirtschaftlicher Produkte (VDLUFA) Kongre8band 1998 110. VDLUFA-Kongre8. 14.-18.09.1998. Gie8en, 465-468. Gie8en, Deutchland.

23 Aumaitre, A; Aulrich, K; Chesson, A; Flachowsky, G; Piva, G, 2002, New feeds from genetically modified plants: substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestibility, and safety for animals and the food chain, Livestock Production Science, 74(3):223-38

24 Bakan, B; Melcion, D; Richard-Molard, D; Cahagnier, B, 2000, Fungal growth and Fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(4):728–731

25 Baker, J M; Hawkins, N D; Ward, J L; Lovegrove, A; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R; Beale, M H, 2006, A metabolomic study of substantial equivalence of field-grown genetically modified wheat, Plant Biotechnology Journal, 4(4):381

26 Bakke-McKellep AM, M. Sanden, A. Danieli, R. Acierno, G-I Hemre, M. Maffia, and Å Krogdahl. 2008. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations. Research in Veterinary Science 84, 395-408.

27 Bakke-McKellep, A.M., E.O. Koppang, G. Gunnes, M. Sanden, G-I. Hemre, T. Landsverk, and A. Krogdahl. 2007. Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans. J of Fish Diseases 30:65-79.

28 Barriere, Y; Verite, R; Brunschwig, P; Surault, F; Emile, J C, 2001, Feeding value of corn silage estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis, Journal of Dairy Science, 84:1863-1871

29 Barrière, Y., R.Vérité, P. Brunschwig, F. Surault, and J.C. Emile. 2001. Feeding value of silage maize estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt 176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1863-1871.

30 Barros, E; Lezar, S; Anttonen, M J; van Dijk, J P; Röhlig, R M; Kok, E J; Engel, K-H , 2010, Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, Plant Biotechnology Journal, 8(4):436-451

31 Barros, G; Magnoli, C; Reynoso, M M; Ramirez, M L; Farnochi, M C; Torres, A; Dalcero, A; Sequeira, J; Rubinstein, C; Chulze, S, 2009, Fungal and mycotoxin contamination in Bt maize and non-Bt maize grown in Argentina, World Mycotoxin Journal, 2(1):53-60

32 Batista, R; Martins, I; Jeno, P; Ricardo, C P; Oliveira, M M, 2007, A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samples, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 144(1):29-38

33 Batista, R; Nunes, B; Carmo, M; Cardoso, C, 2005, Lack of detectable allergenicity of transgenic maize and soya samples, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 116(2):403–410

34 Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida, 2008, Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion., PNAS, 105(9):3640-5

35 Baudo, María Marcela; Lyons, Rebecca; Powers, Stephen; Pastori, Gabriela M; Edwards, Keith J; Holdsworth, Michael J; Shewry, Peter R, 2006, Transgenesis has less impact on the transcriptome of wheat grain than conventional breeding., Plant Biotechnology Journal, 4(4):369-80

36 Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, J.S. Radcliffe, X. Qiu, D.A. Lightfoot, and M.J. Iqbal. 2006. The digestive fate of Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase deoxyribonucleic acid from transgenic corn in diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:597-607.

37 Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, X. Qiu, and M.P. Martin. 2004. The digestive fate of the gdh A transgene in corn diets fed to weanling swine. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):457. Abstract 913.

38 Beever, D.E., K. Glenn, and R.H. Phipps. 2003. A safety evaluation of genetically modified feedstuffs for livestock production; the fate of transgenic DNA and proteins. Asia-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(5):764-772.

39 Benedict J; Fromme, D; Cosper, J; Correa, C; Odvody, G; Parker, R, 1998, Efficacy of Bt Corn Events MON810, Bt11 and E176 in Controlling Corn Earworm, Fall Armyworm, Sugarcane Borer and Aflatoxin, ,

40 Berberich, S A; Ream, J E; Jackson, T L; Wood, R; Stipanovic, R; Harvey, P; Patzer, S; Fuchs, R L , 1996, The composition of insect-protected cottonseed is equivalent to that of conventional cottonseed, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(1):365–371

41 Berger, L.L., N.D. Robbins and E.P. Stanisiewski. 2002. Effect of feeding diets containing corn grain with Roundup (event GA21 or NK603), control, or conventional varieties on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):270. Abstract 1080.

42 Berger, L.L., N.D. Robbins, J.R. Sewell, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2003. Effect of feeding diets containing corn grain with corn rootworm protection (event MON863), control, or conventional varieties on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):214. Abstract M150.

43 Betz F S, Hammond B G , Fuchs R L, 2000, Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests., Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 32(2):156-173

44 Bohme H, Aulrich K, Daenicke R, Flachowsky G, 2001, Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 2nd communication: Glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs, Archives of Animal Nutrition, 54(3):197-207

45 Böhme H, Rudloff E, Schöne F, Schumann W, Hüther L, Flachowsky G. 2007. Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs.Archives of animal nutrition 61(4):308-16. 2007.

46 Böhme, H. and K. Aulrich. 1999. Inhaltsstoffe und Verdaulichkeit von transgenen Zuckerrben bzw. Krnermais im Vergleich zu den isogenen Sorten beim Schwein. (Ingredients and digestibility of transgenic sugar beets and corn in comparision to the isogenic varieties in the case of pigs). VDLUFA Conference Proceedings 1999, 111th VDLUFA Conference, 13-17 September 1999, Halle/Saale, pp. 289-292.

47 Böhme, H., B. Hommel, and G. Flachowsky. 2005. Nutritional assessment of silage from transgenic inulin synthesizing potatoes for pigs. J Animal and Feed Sci. 14(Suppl. 1):333-336.

48 Bondzio, A., Stumpff, F., Schoen, J., Martens, H., Einspanier, R., (2008) Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on rumen epithelial cells (REC) - a new in vitro model for safety assessment of recombinant food compounds, Food and Chemical Toxicology (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.01.038

49 Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Norelli, John L; Aldwinckle, Herb S; Malnoy, Mickael, 2010, Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period, BMC Biotechnology, 10:41

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51 Brake DG, Thaler R, Evenson DP. 2004. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn on mouse testicular development by dual parameter flow cytometry. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52(7):2097-2102.

52 Brake, Denise G; Evenson, Donald P, 2004, A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(1):29-36

53 Brake, J; Faust, M A; Stein, J, 2003, Evaluation of transgenic event Bt11 hybrid corn in broiler chickens., Poultry Science, 82(4):551-9

54 Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J, 2005, Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens., Poultry Science, 84(3):503-12

55 Brake, J; Vlachos, D, 1998, Evaluation of transgenic event 176 "Bt" corn in broiler chickens., Poultry Science, 77(5):648-53

56 Bressner, G. E., Y. Hyun, E. P. Stanisiewski, G. F. Hartnell and M. Ellis. 2003. Performance comparison of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing Corn Root Worm Protected corn (Event MON 863) or conventional corn hybrids. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):207. Abstract M119.

57 Bressner, G., Y. Hyun, E. Stanisiewski, G. Hartnell and M. Ellis. 2002. A comparison of swine performance when fed diets containing Roundup Ready (event NK603) or conventional corn lines. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 2):63. Abstract 128.

58 Brewster, D W; Warren, J; Hopkins, W E, 1991, Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: tissue distribution, identification, and quantitation of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose., Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 17(1):43-51

59 Broll H, Zagon J, Butschke A, Leffke A, Spiegelberg A, Bohme H, Flachowsky G (2005) The fate of DNA of transgenic inulin synthesizing potatoes in pigs. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 14:337-340

60 Brouk, M., B. Cvetkovic, D. Rice, B. Smith, M. Hinds, F. Owens, and T. Sauber. 2008. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed corn as whole plant silage and grain produced from a genetically modified event DAS-59122-7 or a nontransgenic, near isoline control. J Anim. Sci, (Sectional Meeting Abstracts) 86(e-Suppl. 3):89 Abstract 276.

61 Brown PB, Wilson KA, Jonker Y, Nickson TE. 2003 Glyphosate tolerant canola meal is equivalent to the parental line in diets fed to rainbow trout. J Agric Food Chem. 51:4268-72.

62 Brown, N M; Setchell, K D, 2001, Animal models impacted by phytoestrogens in commercial chow: implications for pathways influenced by hormones., Laboratory Investigation, 81(5):735-47

63 Brown, Paul B; Wilson, Keith A; Jonker, Yolanda; Nickson, Thomas E, 2003, Glyphosate tolerant canola meal is equivalent to the parental line in diets fed to rainbow trout., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(15):4268-72

64 Bub A, Möseneder J, Wenzel G, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K. 2008. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes. European journal of nutrition 47(2):99-103.

65 Cahagnier B and Melcion D, Mycotoxines de Fusarium dans les mais-grains `a la re´colte: relation entre la pr´esence d’insectes (pyrale, s´esamie) et la teneur en mycotoxines, in Food Safety: Current Situation and Perspectives in the European Community, Proc 6th International Feed Production Conf, ed by Piva G and Masoero F, pp 237–249 (2000). Cited by Cleveland et al. 2003

66 Caine, W.R., J.L. Aalhus, M.E.R. Dugan, K.A. Lien, I.L. Larsen, F. Costello, T.A. McAllister, K. Stanford, and R. Sharma. 2007. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of pigs fed diets containing meal from conventional or glyphosate-tolerant canola. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 87:517-526.

67 Calsamiglia, S., B. Hernandez, G.F. Hartnell, and R. Phipps. 2007. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 90: 4718-4723.

68 Calsamiglia, S., B. Hernandez, G.F. Hartnell, and R.H. Phipps. 2003. Effects of feeding corn silage produced from corn containing MON810 and GA21 genes on feed intake, milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):62. Abstract 247.

69 Cao, Sishuo ; Wentao Xu, YunBo Luo, Xiaoyun He, Yanfang Yuan, Wenjun Ran, Lixing Lianga and Kunlun Huang.Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats. Mol. BioSyst., 2011, DOI: 10.1039/C1MB05076A (May 19, 2011)

70 Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F, 2004, Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows., Journal of Dairy Science, 87(6):1778-85

71 Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J. M. Giordano, G.A.Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Gianni, and G.F. Hartnell. 2004. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1778-1785.

72 Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J.M. Giordano, G.A. Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Giani, and G.F. Hartnell. 2001. Effect of feeding dairy cows with cottonseeds containing BollGard® and Roundup Ready® genes or control non-transgenic cottonseeds on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 84(Suppl. 1)413. Abstract 1713.

73 Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J.M. Giordano, G.A. Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Gianni, and G.F. Hartnell. 2001. Effect of feeding dairy cows with either BollGard®, BollGard II®, Roundup Ready® or control cottonseeds on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 84(Suppl. 1)413. Abstract 1712.

74 Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John, 2005, Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops., PNAS, 102(40):14458-62

75 Cattaneo, Manda G; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J; Marsh, Stuart E; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves, 2006, Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield., PNAS, 103(20):7571-6

76 Chainark, P., S. Satoh, I. Hirono, T. Aoki, and M. Endo. 2008. Availability of genetically modified feed ingredient: investigations of ingested foreign DNA in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries science 74:380-390.

77 Chainark, P., S. Satoh, T. Hino, V. Kiron, I. Hirono, and T. Aoki. 2006. Availability of genetically modified soybean meal in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss diets. Fisheries Science 72:1072-1078.

78 Chambers, Philip A; Duggan, Paula S; Heritage, John; Forbes, J Michael, 2002, The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 49(1):161-4

79 Chansawang, S., C. Banchasak, T. Khawnsod, T. Anantachaiyong and T. Poolsawat. 2003. Effect of Roundup Ready Corn NK603 on Growth Performance of Female Broiler Chickens under Greenhouse Conditions. Proceeding of The Sixth National Plant Protection Conference. 24th - 27th Nov 2003, p131, Abstract.

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82 Chelsea, S., et al. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.048

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86 Chen, Zhang-Liang; Gu, Hongya; Li, Yi; Su, Yilan; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Zhicheng; Ming, Xiaotian; Tian, Jinhua; Pan, Naisui; Qu, Li-Jia, 2003, Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato., Toxicology, 188:297-307

87 Cheng, K C; Beaulieu, J; Iquira, E; Belzile, F J; Fortin, M G; Strömvik, M V, 2008, Effect of transgenes on global gene expression in soybean is within the natural range of variation of conventional cultivars., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(9):3057-67

88 Chesson A, Flachowsky G (2003) Transgenic plants in poultry nutrition. Worlds Poultry Science Journal 59:201-207

89 Chowdhury EH, Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Sultana P, Miyazaki S, Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Hirai N, Nakajima Y.(2003). Detection of Cry1Ab protein in gastrointestinal contents but not visceral organs of genetically modified Bt11-fed calves. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003 Mar;45(2):72-5.

90 Chowdhury, E H, EH; Kuribara, H, H; Hino, A, A; Sultana, P, P; Mikami, O, O; Shimada, N, N; Guruge, K S, KS; Saito, M, M; Nakajima, Y, Y, 2003, Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11., Journal of Animal Science, 81(10):2546-51

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92 Chrastinová, L'., A. Sommer, J. Rafay, R. Caniga, and M. Prostredná. 2002. Genetically modified maize in diets for rabbits - influence on performance and product quality. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:195.

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99 Cleveland, Thomas E, Patrick F Dowd, Anne E Desjardins, Deepak Bhatnagar, Peter J Cotty (2003). United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops, Pest Management Science Volume 59, Issue 6-7 , Pages 629 - 642

100 Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Kubista M, Messeguer J, Pla M. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices.Plant Mol Biol. 2010 Jun;73(3):349-62. Epub 2010 Mar 27.

101 Coll, Anna; Nadal, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Capellades, Gemma; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé, Enric; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Pla, Maria, 2009, Gene expression profiles of MON810 and comparable non-GM maize varieties cultured in the field are more similar than are those of conventional lines., Transgenic Research, 18(5):801-8

102 Coll, Anna; Nadal, Anna; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé, Enric; Puigdomènech, Pere; Pla, Maria, 2008, Lack of repeatable differential expression patterns between MON810 and comparable commercial varieties of maize., Plant Molecular Biology, 68:105-17

103 Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F, 2008, Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle., Journal of Dairy Science, 91(2):673-8

104 Combs, D.K. and G.F. Hartnell. 2006. Effects of feeding Roundup Ready alfalfa on intake and milk production of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89(Suppl. 1):374 Abstract W234.

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108 Cressman RF, Gregory Ladics (2009). Further evaluation of the utility of "Sliding Window" FASTA in predicting cross-reactivity with allergenic proteins Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 11 December 2008

109 Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Randolph, J H; Parker, G R; Coffey, R D; Laurent, K M; Armstrong, C L; Mikel, W B; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F, 2002, Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine., Journal of Animal Science, 80(3):708-15

110 Cromwell, G.L., B.J. Henry, A.L. Scott, M.F. Gerngross, D.L. Dusek and D. W. Fletcher. 2005.Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine. J.Anim. Sci. 83:1068-1074.

111 Cromwell, G.L., B.J. Henry, and D.W. Fletcher. 2004. Herbicide-tolerant rice versus conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. J.Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):329. Abstract W67.

112 Cromwell, G.L., M.D. Lindemann, J.H. Randolph, E.P. Stanisiewski and G.F. Hartnell. 2001.Soybean meal from Roundup Ready® or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):318-319. Abstract 1318.

113 Cromwell, G.L., M.D. Lindemann, J.H. Randolph, G.R. Parker, R.D. Coffey, K.M. Laurent, C.L. Armstrong, W.B. Mikel, E.P. Stanisiewski and G.F. Hartnell. 2002. Soybean meal from Roundup Ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 80:708-715.

114 Custodio, M.G., W.J. Powers, E. Huff-Lonergan, M.A. Faust, and J. Stein. 2006. Growth, pork quality, and excretion characteristics of pigs fed Bt corn or non-transgenic corn. Can. J. Anim. 86:461- 469.

115 Custodio, M.G., W.J. Powers, E.Huff-Lonergan, M.A. Faust, and J. Stein. 2004. Growth and carcass characteristics of pigs fed biotechnologically derived and non-biotechnologically derived corn and harvested at different weights. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):456. Abstract 911.

116 Daenicke R, Aulrich K, Flachowsky G. (1999). GMO in animal feedstuffs: nutritional properties of Bt-maize... Mais: Fachzeitschrift uber Forschung, Produktionstechnik, Verwertung und Okonomik 135-137 Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre Braunschweig (FAL), Germany.

117 Daenicke, R., D. Gädeken and K. Aulrich. 1999. Einsatz von Silomais herkömmlicher Sorten und der gentechnisch veränderten Bt Hybriden in der Rinderfhtterung - Mastrinder -Tagungsband des. 12, Maiskolloquiums am 27./28.03.1999 in Wittenberg . 40-42.

118 Daenicke, R., K. Aulrich and G. Flachowsky. 1999. GMO in animal feedstuffs: Nutritional properties of Bt-maize unaffected. Mais, Vol. 27 September 1999, pp. 135-137.

119 Daenicke, R., K. Aulrich and G. Flachowsky. 2000. Untersuchungen zum Futterwert von Zuckerrhben und Zuckerrhbenblattsilage von isogenen und transgenen Pflanzen an Hammeln. VDLUFA Kongressband 2000, 112. VDLUFA-Kongress, p. 141 (Abstr).

120 Dai, Ping-Li; Wei Zhou, Jie Zhang, Hong-Juan Cui, Qiang Wang, Wei-Yu Jiang, Ji-Hu Sun, Yan-Yan Wu, Ting Zhou, Field assessment of Bt cry1Ah corn pollen on the survival, development and behavior of Apis mellifera ligustica, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Available online 23 February 2012, ISSN 0147-6513, 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.01.005.

121 de la Campa, Regina; Hooker, David C; Miller, J David; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hammond, Bruce G, 2005, Modeling effects of environment, insect damage, and Bt genotypes on fumonisin accumulation in maize in Argentina and the Philippines., Mycopathologia, 159(4):539-52

122 de Vendômois JS, Roullier F, Cellier D, Séralini GE. (2010). A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. Int J Biol Sci. ;5(7):706-26.

123 Deaville, E.R. and B.C. Maddison. 2005. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments, in the blood, tissues, and digesta of broilers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:10268-10275.

124 Defernez M, Gunning YM, Parr AJ, Shepherd LV, Davies HV, Colquhoun IJ. (2004) J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6075-85. NMR and HPLC-UV profiling of potatoes with genetic modifications to metabolic pathways.

125 Delaney, Bryan; Astwood, James D; Cunny, Helen; Conn, Robin Eichen; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Macintosh, Susan; Meyer, Linda S; Privalle, Laura; Gao, Yong; Mattsson, Joel; Levine, Marci, 2008, Evaluation of protein safety in the context of agricultural biotechnology., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(Suppl 2):S71-97

126 Demanèche, Sandrine; Sanguin, Hervé; Poté, John; Navarro, Elisabeth; Bernillon, Dominique; Mavingui, Patrick; Wildi, Walter; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal, 2008, Antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria in transgenic plant fields., PNAS, 105(10):3957-62

127 Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Vergucht, Sofie; Bulcke, Robert; Haesaert, Geert; Steurbaut, Walter; Reheul, Dirk, 2008, Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize., Transgenic Research, 17(6):1059-77

128 Dhillion, MK; and H. C. Sharma. Impact of Bt-engineered cotton on target and non-target arthropods, toxin flow through different trophic levels and seedcotton yield. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 22(3-Spl. Issue ) : (462-466 ) 2009

129 Di Carli, Mariasole; Villani, Maria Elena; Renzone, Giovanni; Nardi, Luca; Pasquo, Alessandra; Franconi, Rosella; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Desiderio, Angiola, 2009, Leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies., Journal of Proteome Research, 8(2):838-48

130 Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi, 2011, A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants, Environment International, 37(4):734-42

131 Domon, Eiji, Hidenori Takagi, Sakiko Hirose, Koichi Sugita, Saori Kasahara, Hiroyasu Ebinuma, Fumio Takaiwa (2009) 26-Week Oral Safety Study in Macaques for Transgenic Rice Containing Major Human T-Cell Epitope Peptides from Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergens, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009 57 (12), 5633-5638

132 Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F, 2003, Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle., Journal of Dairy Science, 86(5):1780-8

133 Donkin, S.S., J.C. Velez, A.K. Totten, E.P. Stanisiewski and G.F. Hartnell. 2003. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk composition in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 86:1780-1788.

134 Doull, J; Gaylor, D; Greim, H; Lovell, DP; Lynch, B; Munro, IC (2007) Report of an expert panel on the reanalysis by Seralini et al. (2007) of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863). Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (11): 2073-2085 NOV 2007

135 Dowd PF (2001) Biotic and abiotic factors limiting efficacy of Bt corn in indirectly reducing mycotoxin levels in commercial fields. J Econ Ent 94(5): 1067–1074.

136 Dowd, P F, 2000, Indirect reduction of ear molds and associated mycotoxins in Bacillus thuringiensis corn under controlled and open field conditions: utility and limitations., Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(6):1669-79

137 Dowd, P.F. (2004) Technical Abstract: Reliability of a ComputerProgram for Predicting Mycotoxin Levels in Midwestern U.S.A. Maize (May 21, 2004) (submitted to the Int’l Iupac Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins), available athttp://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/ublications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=159116. (Dr Patrick Dowd, an Agricultural Research Scientist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), has created a computer program to predict mycotoxin, including fumonisin, levels several weeks before harvest using data related to the factors set forth in the review by Kershen D 2006).

138 Dowd, Patrick F. (2004) Considering the Importance of Insect Resistance in Corn Ears in Relation to the Contribution of Insects to the Mycotoxin Problem (Mar. 2, 2004) (paper presented at the 40th Annual Illinois Corn Breeder’s School) (technical abstract available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115-160750);

139 Drury, Suzanne M; Reynolds, Tracey L; Ridley, William P; Bogdanova, Natalia; Riordan, Susan; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L, 2008, Composition of forage and grain from second-generation insect-protected corn MON 89034 is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.)., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(12):4623-30

140 Dryzga, M D; Yano, B L; Andrus, A K; Mattsson, J L, 2007, Evaluation of the safety and nutritional equivalence of a genetically modified cottonseed meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(10):1994-2004

141 Duan, Jian J; Marvier, Michelle; Huesing, Joseph; Dively, Galen; Huang, Zachary Y, 2008, A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)., PloS One, 3(1):e1415

142 Dubouzet, Joseph G; Ishihara, Atsushi; Matsuda, Fumio; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Wakasa, Kyo, 2007, Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of high-tryptophan rice expressing a mutant anthranilate synthase alpha subunit., Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(12):3309-21

143 Duc, Caroline; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lindfeld, Andreas, 2011, No adverse effect of genetically modified antifungal wheat on decomposition dynamics and the soil fauna community--a field study, PloS One, 6(10):e25014

144 Duggan, P.S., Chambers, P.A., Heritage, J., Forbes, J.M. (2002). Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 191, 71–77. A

145 Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J, 2003, Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(1):340-4

146 Duvick, J, 2001, Prospects for reducing fumonisin contamination of maize through genetic modification., Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(Suppl 2):337-42

147 EFSA, 2004a. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on a request from the Commission related to the Notification (Reference C/DE/02/9) for the placing on the market of insect-protected genetically modified maize MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810, for import and processing, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Monsanto. The EFSA Journal, 49, 1-25.http://www.efsa.europa.eu/etc/medialib/efsa/science/gmo/gmo_opinions/381.Par.0001.File.dat/opinion_gmo_06_en1.pdf

148 EFSA, 2004b. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on a request from the Commission related to the safety of foods and food ingredients derived from insect-protected genetically modified maize MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810, for which a request for placing on the market was submitted under Article 4 of the Novel Food Regulation (EC) No 258/97 by Monsanto. The EFSA Journal, 50, 1-25.http://www.efsa.europa.eu/etc/medialib/efsa/science/gmo/gmo_opinions/383.Par.0001.File.dat/opinion_gmo_07_en1.pdf

149 Einspanier R, Lutz B, Rief S, Berezina O, Zverlov V, Schwarz W, Mayer J (2004) Tracing residual recombinant feed molecules during digestion and rumen bacterial diversity in cattle fed transgene maize. European Food Research and Technology 218:269-273

150 Eizaguirre, Matilde; Albajes, Ramon; López, Carmen; Eras, Jordi; Lumbierres, Belén; Pons, Xavier, 2006, Six years after the commercial introduction of Bt maize in Spain: field evaluation, impact and future prospects., Transgenic Research, 15(1):1/12/2012

151 El Sanhoty R, El-Rahman AA, Bogl KW. 2004 Quality and safety evaluation of genetically modified potatoes spunta with Cry V gene: compositional analysis, determination of some toxins, antinutrients compounds and feeding study in rats. Nahrung. 48:13-8.

152 Elangovan, A., A. Mandal, and T. Johri. 2003. Comparative performance of broilers fed diets containing processed meals of Bt, parental non-Bt line or commercial cotton seeds. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 16(1):57-62.

153 Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Barron J. Orr, Stuart E. Marsh, Larry Antilla, Pierre Dutilleul, and Yves Carriere Y. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 16;103(20):7571-6. Epub 2006 May 4.

154 Enot, David P; Beckmann, Manfred; Overy, David; Draper, John, 2006, Predicting interpretability of metabolome models based on behavior, putative identity, and biological relevance of explanatory signals., PNAS, 103(40):14865-70

155 Erickson GE, Robbins ND, Simon JJ, Berger LL, Klopfenstein TJ, Stanisiewski EP, Hartnell GF. 2003 Effect of feeding glyphosate-tolerant (roundup-ready events GA21 or nk603) corn compared with reference hybrids on feedlot steer performance and carcass characteristics. J Anim Sci. 81:2600-8.

156 Erickson, G.E., N.D. Robbins, J.J. Simon, L.L. Berger, T.J. Klopfenstein, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2003. Effect of feeding glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup-Ready events GA21 or nk603) corn compared with reference hybrids on feedlot steer performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci.81:2600-2608.

157 Ewen SWB, Pusztai A (1999). Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet 354:1353-1354

158 FAO/WHO (2001). Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on allergenicity of foods derived from biotechnology. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, 2001. ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/food/allergygm.pdf

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160 Faust , M.A., B. Smith, M. Hinds, and G. Dana. 2003. Dairy cattle performance, health, and milk composition when fed silage and grain fron Bt (Cry1F) and near-isogenic control hybrids. J. Dairy Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):61-62. Abstract 246.

161 Faust M, Smith B, Rice D, Owens F, Hinds M, Dana G, Hunst P.(2007) Performance of lactating dairy cows fed silage and grain from a maize hybrid with the cry1F trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart.J Dairy Sci. 2007 Dec;90(12):5706-13.

162 Faust, M. and L. Miller. 1997. Study finds no Bt in milk. IC-478. Fall Special Livestock Edition. pp 6-7. Iowa State University Extension, Ames, Iowa.

163 Faust, M.A., B. Smith, D. Rice, F. Owens, M. Hinds, G. Dana, and P. Hunst. 2007. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed silage and grain from a maize hybrid with the Cry1F trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5706-5713.

164 Fearing PL, Brown D, Vlachos D, Meghji M, Privalle L (1997). Quantitative analysis of CryIA(b) expression in Bt maize plants, tissues, and silage and stability of expression over successive generations. Molecular Breeding 3:169-176

165 Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni, 2011, Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(18):10006-12

166 Finamore, Alberto; Roselli, Marianna; Britti, Serena; Monastra, Giovanni; Ambra, Roberto; Turrini, Aida; Mengheri, Elena, 2008, Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(23):11533-9

167 Fischer, R.L., A.J. Lewis and P.S. Miller. 2002. Comparison of swine performance when fed diets containing Roundup Readyâ corn, parental line corn, or two commercial corns. 2002 Nebraska Swine Report. P. 7-11.

168 Fischer, R.L., A.J. Lewis, P.S. Miller, E. P. Stanisiewski and G.F. Hartnell. 2002. Comparison of swine performance when fed diets containing Roundup Ready® corn (event NK603), control, or conventional corn grown during 2000 in Nebraska. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):224. Abstract 894.

169 Fischer, R.L., P.S. Miller, Y. Hyun, G.F. Hartnell, and E.P. Stanisiewski. 2003. Comparison of swine performance when fed diets containing corn root worm protected corn, parental line corn, or conventional corn grown during 2000 in Nebraska. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):207. Abstract M118.

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171 Flachowsky, G. and C. Wenk. 2010. The role of animal feeding trials for the nutritional and safety assessment of feeds from genetically modified plants – present stage and future challenges. J. Anim and Feed Sci. 19:149-170.

172 Flachowsky, G. and K. Aulrich. 2001. Nutritional assessment of feeds from genetically modified organism. J. Anim. and Feed Sci. 10(Suppl. 1):181-194.

173 Flachowsky, G., A. Chesson, and K. Aulrich. 2005. Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59(1):1-40.

174 Flachowsky, G., I. Halle, and K. Aulrich. 2005. Long term feeding of Bt-corn – a ten generation study with quails. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59(6):449-451. Gaines, A.M., G.L. Allee, and B.W. Ratliff. 2001. Nutritional evaluation of Bt (MON810) and Roundup Ready ® corn compared with commercial hybrids in broilers. Poult. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):51. Abstract 214.

175 Flachowsky, G., K. Aulrich, A. Berk, R. Daenicke and T. Reuter. 2002. Nutritional Assessment of feeds from genetically modified (GM) crops. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:183-186.

176 Flachowsky, G., K. Aulrich, H. Böhme, and I.Halle. 2007. Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – Contributions to nutritional and safety assessment. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 133:2-30.

177 Flachowsky, G., K. Aulrich, H. Böhme, and R. Daenicke. 2000. GMO in animal nutrition: results of experiments at our Institute. Proceedings of the 6th International Feed Production Conference. Piacenza, Italy November 2000. Food Safety: Current situation and perspectives in the European Community. Editors, G. Piva and F. Masoero. P 291-307.

178 Flackowsky, G. and H. Böhme. 2005. Proposals for nutritional assessments of feeds from genetically modified plants. J. Animal and Feed Sci. 14(Suppl. 1):49-70.

179 Folcher L, M. Delos, E. Marengue, M. Jarry, A. Weissenberger, N. Eychenne and C. Regnault-Roger (2010). Lower mycotoxin levels in Bt maize grain. Agron. Sustain. Dev. DOI10.1051/agro/2010005 Published online 16 April 2010 "Our results thus show that Bt maize improved food safety by greatly reducing mycotoxin levels in field crops in Southwestern France."

180 Folmer, J., R. Grant and J. Beck. 2001. Use of Bt corn silage and grain by lactating dairy cows. 2001-2002 Nebraska Dairy Report, University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension MP78-A, p. 13-17.

181 Folmer, J.D. G.E. Erickson, C.T. Milton, T.J. Klopfenstein and J.F. Beck. 2000. Utilization of Bt corn residue and corn silage for growing beef steers. J. Animal Sci. 78 (Suppl. 2):85 Abstract 271.

182 Folmer, J.D., R.J. Grant, C.T. Milton and J. Beck. 2002. Utilization of Bt corn residues by grazing beef steers and Bt corn silage and grain by growing beef cattle and lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1352-1361.

183 Folmer, J.D., R.J. Grant, C.T. Milton and J.F. Beck. 2000. Effect of Bt corn silage on short-term lactational performance and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83 (5):1182 Abstract 272.

184 Fonseca, Cátia; Sébastien Planchon, Jenny Renaut, Maria Margarida Oliveira, Rita Batista, Characterization of maize allergens — MON810 vs. its non-transgenic counterpart, Journal of Proteomics, Available online 13 January 2012, ISSN 1874-3919, 10.1016/j.jprot.2012.01.005.

185 Frøystad-Saugen, M.K., E. Lilleeng, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, K. Vekterud, E.C. Valen, G.-I. Hemre, and Å. Krogdahl. 2009. Distal intestinal gene expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified maize. Aquaculture Nutrition 15:104-115.

186 Frøystad, M.K., E. Lilleeng, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, K. Vekterud, G.-I. Hemre, and Å. Krogdahl. 2008. Gene expression in distal intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified soybean meal. Aquaculture Nutrition 14:204-214.

187 Fuchs RL, Ream JE, Hammond BG, Naylor MW, Leimgruber RM, et al. 1993. Safety assessment of the neomycin phosphotransferase-ii (nptII) protein. Bio/Technology 11:1543–47

188 Fuchs, Marc; Gonsalves, Dennis, 2007, Safety of virus-resistant transgenic plants two decades after their introduction: lessons from realistic field risk assessment studies., Annual Review of Phytopathology, 45:173-202

189 Furgal-Dierzuk, I. and J. Strzetelski. 2009. Rumen degradability of genetically modified corn and soybean. Conference Materials from XXXVIII Scientific Session of the Committee on Animal Science – “Genetically Modified Feeds and Conventional Feeds in Animal Nutrition”. Balice, Poland May 28-29, 2009, P. 172.

190 Gaines, A.M., G.L. Allee, and B.W. Ratliff. 2001. Nutritional evaluation of Bt (MON810) and Roundup Ready ® corn compared with commercial hybrids in broilers. Poult. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):51. Abstract 214.

191 Gaines, A.M., G.L. Allee, and B.W. Ratliff. 2001. Swine digestible energy evaluations of Bt (MON810) and Roundup® corn compared with commercial varieties. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):109. Abstract 453.

192 Gao MQ, Hou SP, Pu DQ, Shi M, Ye GY, Chen XX. Multi-generation effects of Bt rice on Anagrus nilaparvatae, a parasitoid of the nontarget pest Nilapavarta lugens. Environ Entomol. 2010 Dec;39(6):2039-44. PMID 22182572

193 George, Cherian; Ridley, William P; Obert, Janet C; Nemeth, Margaret A; Breeze, Matthew L; Astwood, James D, 2004, Composition of grain and forage from corn rootworm-protected corn event MON 863 is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays l.)., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(13):4149-58

194 Gizzarelli F, Corinti S, Barletta B, Iacovacci P, Brunetto B, Butteroni C, Afferni C, Onori R, Miraglia M, Panzini G, Di Felice G, Tinghino R. (2006) Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified soybean protein extract in a murine model of oral allergen-specific sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006 Feb;36(2):238-48.

195 Glencross B, Curnow J, Hawkins W, Kissil GWM, Peterson D (2003). Evaluation of the feed value of a transgenic strain of the narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in the diet of the marine fish, Pagrus auratus. Aquaculture Nutrition 9:197-206

196 Glencross, B., J. Curnow, W. Hawkins, G.W.M. Kissil, and D. Peterson. 2003. Evaluation of the feed value of a transgenic strain of the narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in the diet of the marine fish,Pagrus auratus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 9:197-206.

197 Goodman, Richard E; Vieths, Stefan; Sampson, Hugh A; Hill, David; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Taylor, Steve L; van Ree, Ronald, 2008, Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified crops--what makes sense?, Nature Biotechnology, 26(1):73-81

198 Grant RJ, Fanning KC, Kleinschmit D, Stanisiewski EP, Hartnell GF (2003). Influence of glyphosate-tolerant (event nk603) and corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn silage and grain on feed consumption and milk production in Holstein cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 86:1707-1715

199 Grant, R.J., D. Kleinschmit, A.L. Sparks, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2002. Influence of glyphosate tolerant (trait NK603) corn silage and grain on feed consumption and milk production in Holstein dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):384. Abstract 1540.

200 Grant, R.J., K. C Fanning, D. Kleinschmit, E. P. Stanisiewski, and G. F. Hartnell. 2003. Influence of glyphosate-tolerant (event nk603) and corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn silage and grain on feed consumption and milk production in Holstein cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 86:1707-1715.

201 Gregersen PL, Brinch-Pedersen H, Holm PB.(2005) A microarray-based comparative analysis of gene expression profiles during grain development in transgenic and wild type wheat. Transgenic Res. 2005 Dec;14(6):887-905.

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203 Gruber, Helga; Vijay Paul, Patrick Guertler, Hubert Spiekers, Ales Tichopad, Heinrich H. D. Meyer, and Martin Mller. Fate of Cry1Ab Protein in Agricultural Systems under Slurry Management of Cows Fed Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays L.) MON810: A Quantitative Assessment. J. Agric. Food Chem., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/jf200854n Publication Date (Web): May 23, 2011

204 Guertler, P., V. Paul, K. Steinke, S. Wiedemann, W. Preiβinger, C. Albrecht, H. Spiekers, F. Schwarz, and H.H.D.Meyer. 2010. Long-term feeding of genetically modified corn (MON810) – Fate of cry1Ab DNA and recombinant protein during the metabolism of the dairy cow. Livestock Science 131:250-259.

205 Gulden, Robert H; Lerat, Sylvain; Hart, Miranda M; Powell, Jeff R; Trevors, Jack T; Pauls, K Peter; Klironomos, John N; Swanton, Clarence J, 2005, Quantitation of transgenic plant DNA in leachate water: real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(15):5858-65

206 Guthrie, T.A., G.A. Apgar, K.E. Griswold, M.D. Lindemann, J.S. Radcliffe, and B.N. Jacobson. 2004.Nutritional value of a corn containing a glutamate dehydrogenase gene for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1693-1698.

207 Halle, I. and G. Flachowsky. 2006. Feeding of genetically modified (Bt) maize to laying hens over four generations. Book of Abstracts of the 57th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production Antalya, Turkey, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Netherlands, No.12, p. 146.

208 Halle, I., K. Aulrich and G. Flachowsky. 1998. Einsatz von Maiskörnen der Sorte Cesar und des gentechnisch veränderten Bt-Hybriden in der Broiler mast. Proc. 5. Tagung, Schweine- und Geflhgelernährung, 01,-03.12.1998, Wittenberg p 265-267. Wittenberg, Deutchland.

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218 Hammond, B., J. Vicini, G. Hartnell, M.W. Naylor, C.D. Knight, E. Robinson, R. L. Fuchs, and S.R. Padgette et al. 1996. The feeding value of soybeans fed to rats, chickens, catfish and dairy cattle is not altered by genetic incorporation of glyphosate tolerance. J. Nutr. 126: 717-727.

219 Hammond, Bruce G; Campbell, Keith W; Pilcher, Clinton D; Degooyer, Todd A; Robinson, Aaron E; McMillen, Brian L; Spangler, Steven M; Riordan, Susan G; Rice, Larry G; Richard, John L, 2004, Lower fumonisin mycotoxin levels in the grain of Bt corn grown in the United States in 2000-2002., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(5):1390-7

220 Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye, 2008, Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats., Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 52(3):311-23

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227 Hashimoto, W., Momma, K., Katsube, T., Ohkawa, Y., Ishige, T., Kito, M., Utsumi, S., Murata, K., 1999a. Safety assessment of genetically engineered potatoes with designed soybean glycinin: compositional analyses of the potato tubers and digestibility of the newly expressed protein in transgenic potatoes. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79, 1607–1612.

228 He, X Y; Huang, K L; Li, X; Qin, W; Delaney, B; Luo, Y B, 2008, Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with non-transgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(6):1994-2002

229 He, Xiao Yun; Tang, Mao Zhi; Luo, Yun Bo; Li, Xin; Cao, Si Shuo; Yu, Jing Juan; Delaney, Bryan; Huang, Kun Lun, 2009, A 90-day toxicology study of transgenic lysine-rich maize grain (Y642) in Sprague-Dawley rats., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(2):425-32

230 Healy, C; Hammond, B; Kirkpatrick, J, 2008, Results of a 13-week safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn rootworm-protected, glyphosate-tolerant MON 88017 corn., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(7):2517-24

231 Hemre, G. -I., M. Sanden, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, A. Sagstad, and. A. Krogdahl. 2005. Growth, feed utilization and health of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. fed genetically modified compared to non-modified commercial hybrid soybeans. Aquaculture Nutrition 11(3):157-167.

232 Hemre, G.-I., A. Sagstad, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, A. Danieli, R. Acierno, M. Maffia, M. Frøystad, Å. Krogdahl, and M. Sanden. 2007. Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize. Aquaculture Nutrition 13: 186-199.

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234 Hérouet C, Esdaile DJ, Mallyon BA, Debruyne E, Schulz A, Currier T, Hendrickx K, van der Klis RJ, Rouan D. (2005) Safety evaluation of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase proteins encoded by the pat and bar sequences that confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicide in transgenic plants.Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;41(2):134-49. Epub 2005 Jan 18.

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236 Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Cifuentes, Alejandro, 2007, Analysis of chiral amino acids in conventional and transgenic maize., Analytical Chemistry, 79(13):5071-7

237 Hoff, Michael; Son, Dae-Yeul; Gubesch, Michaela; Ahn, Kangmo; Lee, Sang-Il; Vieths, Stefan; Goodman, Richard E; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Bannon, Gary A, 2007, Serum testing of genetically modified soybeans with special emphasis on potential allergenicity of the heterologous protein CP4 EPSPS., Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 51(8):946-55

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240 Huls, T.J., G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, M.K. Luebbe, K.J. Vander Pol, D.W. Rice, B.L. Smith, M.A. Hinds, F.N. Owens, and M.K. Liebergesell. 2007. Effect of feeding das-59122-7 corn grain and non-transgenic corn grain to finishing steers. J.Anim. Sci. 85:(Suppl. 1):172. (Abstr.)

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242 Hvelplund, T. and M.R. Weisbjerg. 2001. Comparison of nutrient digestibility between Roundup Ready® beets and conventional beets and pulps. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):417. Abstract 1732.

243 Hyun, Y; Bressner, G E; Ellis, M; Lewis, A J; Fischer, R; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F, 2004, Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing Roundup Ready corn (event nk603), a nontransgenic genetically similar corn, or conventional corn lines., Journal of Animal Science, 82(2):571-80

244 Hyun, Y., G.E. Bressner, R.L. Fischer, P.S. Miller, M. Ellis, B.A. Peterson, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2005. Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing YieldGard Rootworm corn (MON 863), a nontransgenic genetically similar corn, or conventional corn hybrids. J.Anim. Sci. 83:1581-1590.

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246 Ipharraguerre, I.R., R.S. Younker, J.H. Clark, E.P. Stanisiewski and G.F. Hartnell. 2003.Performance of lactating dairy cows fed corn as whole plant silage and grain produced from a glyphosate-tolerant hybrid (event NK603). J. Dairy Sci. 86:1734-1741.

247 Ipharraguerre, I.R., R.S. Younker, J.H. Clark, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2002.Performance of lactating dairy cows fed glyphosate-tolerant corn (event NK603). J. Dairy Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):358. Abstract 1435.

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250 Jacobs, C M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hinds, M; Liebergesell, M; Sauber, T, 2008, Performance of laying hens fed diets containing DAS-59122-7 maize grain compared with diets containing nontransgenic maize grain., Poultry Science, 87(3):475-9

251 Jacobs, C.M., P.L. Utterback, C.M. Parsons, B. Smith, M. Hinds, D. Rice, M. Liebergesell, and T. Sauber. 2007. Feeding performance in laying hens fed diets containing DAS-59122-7 maize grain compared with diets containing non-transgenic maize grain. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl.1):519. (Abstr.)

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406 ROSSI, F., MORLACCHINI, M., FUSCONI, G., PIETRI, A., PIVA, G.. Effect of insertion of Bt gene in corn and different fumonisin content on growth performance of weaned piglets. Italian Journal of Animal Science, North America, 10, apr. 2011.

407 Ruebelt, Martin C; Leimgruber, Nancy K; Lipp, Markus; Reynolds, Tracey L; Nemeth, Margaret A; Astwood, James D; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Jany, Klaus-Dieter, 2006, Application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to interrogate alterations in the proteome of genetically modified crops. 1. Assessing analytical validation., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(6):2154-61

408 Ruebelt, Martin C; Lipp, Markus; Reynolds, Tracey L; Astwood, James D; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Jany, Klaus-Dieter, 2006, Application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to interrogate alterations in the proteome of genetically modified crops. 2. Assessing natural variability., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(6):2162-8

409 Ruebelt, Martin C; Lipp, Markus; Reynolds, Tracey L; Schmuke, Jon J,; Astwood, James D; DellaPenna, Dean; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Jany, Klaus-Dieter, 2006, Application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to interrogate alterations in the proteome of gentically modified crops. 3. Assessing unintended effects., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(6):2169-77

410 Russell, J. and Petersen, T. S. (1999) Bt corn and non-Bt corn crop residues equal in grazing value. 30. 1999 30 6 6-30-0099.

411 Russell, J. and T. Peterson. 1999. Bt corn and non-Bt corn crop residues equal in grazing value. Extension News, June 30, 1999. Iowa State University Extension, Ames.

412 Russell, J.R., D. Farnham, R.K. Berryman, M.J. Hersom, A. Pugh and K. Barrett. 2000. Nutritive value of the crop residues from bt-corn hybrids and their effects on performance of grazing beef cows. 2000 Beef Research Report -Iowa State University. p 56-61.

413 Russell, J.R., M.J. Hersom, A. Pugh, K. Barrett and D. Farnham. 2000. Effects of grazing crop residues from bt-corn hybrids on the performance of gestating beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 78 (Suppl. 2):79-80 Abstract 244.

414 Russell, J.R., M.J. Hersom, M.M. Haan, M.L. Kruse and D.G. Morrical. 2001. Effects of grazing crop residues from Bt-corn hybrids on pregnant beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 2):98. Abstract 300.

415 Rutzmoser K, Mayer J, Obermaier A (1999) Feeding of maize silage of strains 'Pactol' and 'Pactol CB' (genetically modified Bt-Hybrid) to Dairy Cows. (Verfütterung von Silomais der Sorten “Pactol” und “Pactol CB” (gentechnisch veränderte Bt-Hybride) an Milchkühe). Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau) 3:25-34

416 Sagstad A, Sanden M, Haugland Ø, Hansen AC, Olsvik PA, Hemre GI.(2007) Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. J Fish Dis. 2007 Apr;30(4):201-12.

417 Sagstad, A., M. Sanden, A. Krogdahl, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, M. Froystad, and G-I Hemre. 2008.Organs development, gene expression and health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified soybeans compared to the near-isogenic non-modified parental line. Aquaculture Nutrition 14(6):556-572.

418 Sakamoto Y, Tada Y, Fukumori N, Tayama K, Ando H, Takahashi H, Kubo Y, Nagasawa A, Yano N, Yuzawa K, Ogata A.A 2008. 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 49(4):272-82.

419 Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio; Kamimura, Hisashi, 2007, A 52-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats, Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi (Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan), 48(3):41-50

420 Sanden M, A. Krogdahl, A.M. Bakke-McKellep, R.K. Buddington, and G-I Hemre. 2006 Growth, organ development and function of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. parr fed genetically modified (GM) soybeans and maize. Aquaculture Nutrition 12: 1-14.

421 Sanden M, Bruce IJ, Rahman MA, Hemre GI (2004) The fate of transgenic sequences present in genetically modified plant products in fish feed, investigating the survival of GM soybean DNA fragments during feeding trials in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture 237:391-405

422 Sanden, M., M.H.G. Berntssen, A. Krogdahl, G-I. Herme, and A-M. McKellep. 2005. An examination of the intestinal tract of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr fed different varieties of soy and maize. J of Fish Diseases 28:317-330.

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424 Sarkar, Binoy; Patra, Ashok K; Purakayastha, T J; Megharaj, Mallavarapu, 2009, Assessment of biological and biochemical indicators in soil under transgenic Bt and non-Bt cotton crop in a sub-tropical environment., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 156:595-604

425 Sauvé, A. and J.T. Brake. 2010. Safety evaluation of Event 5307 transgenic corn in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci 89(E-Suppl. 1):96. Abstract M245.

426 Scheideler, S E; Hileman, R E; Weber, T; Robeson, L; Hartnell, G F, 2008, The in vivo digestive fate of the Cry3Bb1 protein in laying hens fed diets containing MON 863 corn., Poultry Science, 87(6):1089-97

427 Scheideler, S.E., D. Rice, B. Smith, G. Dana, and T. Sauber. 2008. Evaluation of nutritional equivalency of corn grain from DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (Herculex I) in the diets of laying hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 17:383-389.

428 Scheideler, S.E., P Weber, K. Sok, R.E. Hileman, and G.F. Hartnell. 2006. Fate of Cry3Bb1 protein in laying hens fed diets containing MON 863. Poult. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1): 8 Abstract M11.

429 Scheideler, S.E., R.E. Hileman, T. Weber, L.Robeson, and G.F. Hartnell. 2008. The in vivo digestive fate of the Cry3Bb1 protein in laying hens fed diets containing MON 863 corn. Poultry Science 87:1089-1097.

430 Schnell, Jamie; He´le`ne Labbe´, Nik Kovinich, Yuzuki Manabe, Brian Miki. Comparability of imazapyr-resistant Arabidopsis created by transgenesis and mutagenesis. Transgenic Res. 2012 DOI 10.1007/s11248-012-9597-z

431 Scholtz, N., G. Flachowsky, and H. Sauerwein. 2009. Immune response in quail fed with or without genetically modified Bt-maize. J. Anim. Sci. 87(E-Suppl 2):390 (Abstr W20).

432 Scholtz, N., G. Flachowsky, I. Halle, and H. Sauerwein. 2009. Metabolic and histological evaluation of quails with or without genetically modified Bt-maize. J. Anim. Sci. 87(E-Suppl 2):390 (Abstr W19).

433 Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea; Kroghsbo, Stine; Miller, Andreas; Frenzel, Thomas; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Emami, Kaveh; Gatehouse, Angharad; Shu, Qingyao; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Altosaar, Illimar; Knudsen, Ib, 2007, A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(3):339-49

434 Schubbert, R; Lettmann, C; Doerfler, W, 1994, Ingested foreign (phage M13) DNA survives transiently in the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream of mice., Molecular and General Genetics, 242(5):495-504

435 Schubbert, R., Hohlweg, U., Renz, D., Doerfler, W. (1998). On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission in the fetus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 259, 569–576. See GMO Pundit post on DNA and gene movement between species.

436 Schubbert, R., Renz, D., Schmitz, B., Doerfler, W. (1997). Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen and liver via intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 961–966. See GMO Pundit post on DNA and gene movement between species.

437 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms [EFSA](Question No EFSA-Q-2008-077) Adopted on 29 October 2008, SCIENTIFIC OPINION Request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause invoked by France on maize MON810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and the emergency measure according to Article 34 of Regulation No 1829/2003/EC1. The EFSA Journal (2008) 850, 1-45

438 Séralini, G-E, Cellier, D and de Vendomois, JS (2007) New Analysis of a Rat Feeding Study with a Genetically Modified Maize Reveals Signs of Hepatorenal Toxicity. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007 May;52(4):596-602. Epub 2007 Mar 13. PMID: 17356802

439 Seufert, V., Ramankutty, N. & Foley, J. A. Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture. Nature 485, 229–232 (2012).

440 Sharma, M.C. 2006. Feeding studies of transgenic Bt cotton seed of JKAL event 1 containing cry1Ac gene in lactating crossbred dairy cows. cera-gmc.org/docs/decdocs/09-057-008.pdf (Accessed 15APR2010)

441 Sharma, R., D. Damgaard, T.W. Alexander, M.E.R. Dugan, J.L. Aalhus, K. Stanford, and T.A. McAllister. 2006. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(5):1699-1709.

442 Sharma, R., T.W. Alexander, D.M. Damgaard and T.A. McAllister. 2003. Stability of transgenic DNA from Roundup Ready canola in duodenal fluids of ruminants. No. R62 Proc. Of Canadian Society of Animal Sciences, June 10-13, 2003 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

443 Sharma, R., T.W. Alexander, S.J. John, R.J. Forster, and T.A. McAllister. 2004. Relative stability of transgene DNA fragments from GM rapeseed in mixed ruminal cultures. British Journal of Nutrition 91(5):673-681.

444 Shelton AM, J.-Z. Zhao, and R. T. Roush Economic, Ecological, Food Safety, and Social Consequences of the deployment of Bt Transgenic Plants. Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 47: 845-881 (Volume publication date January 2002)

445 Shepherd LV, McNicol JW, Razzo R, Taylor MA, Davies HV (2006). Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients. Transgenic Res. 15(4):409-25.

446 Shewry PR , Marcela Baudo, Alison Lovegrove, Stephen Powers, Johnathan A. Napier, Jane L. Ward, John M. Baker, Michael H. Beale. Are GM and conventionally bred cereals really different? Trends in Food Science & Technology Volume 18, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 201–209

447 Shewry, Peter R; Powers, Stephen; Field, J Michael; Fido, Roger J; Jones, Huw D; Arnold, Gillian M; West, Jevon; Lazzeri, Paul A; Barcelo, Pilar; Barro, Francisco; Tatham, Arthur S; Bekes, Frank; Butow, Barbara; Darlington, Helen, 2006, Comparative field performance over 3 years and two sites of transgenic wheat lines expressing HMW subunit transgenes., Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 113(1):128-36

448 Shimada, Nobuaki; Murata, Hideo; Mikami, Osamu; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Shigeru, 2006, Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn bt11: a clinico-biochemical study., The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (Japanese Society of Veterinary Science), 68(10):1113-5

449 Sidhu RS, Hammond BG, Fuchs RL, Mutz JN, Holden LR, George B, Olson T. (2000) Glyphosate-tolerant corn: the composition and feeding value of grain from glyphosate-tolerant corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.). J Agric Food Chem. 48:2305-12.

450 Silvanovich, Andre; Nemeth, Margaret A; Song, Ping; Herman, Rod; Tagliani, Laura; Bannon, Gary A, 2006, The value of short amino acid sequence matches for prediction of protein allergenicity., Toxicological Sciences, 90(1):252-8

451 Simon, J.J., K.J. Vander Pol, G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, C.N. Macken, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2002. Effect of Roundup Ready® corn (event NK603) on performance in beef feedlot diets. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):46. Abstract 179.

452 Sinagawa-García, Sugey R; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Paredes-López, Octavio, 2004, Safety assessment by in vitro digestibility and allergenicity of genetically modified maize with an amaranth 11S globulin, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(9):2709-14

453 Sindt, J., J. Drouillard, E. Loe, T. Kessen, M. Sulpizio, S. Montgomery, D. Rice, M. Hinds, B. Smith, F. Owens, G. Dana, and P. Hunst. 2007. Effect of corn containing the Cry1F protein on performance of beef heifers fed a finishing diet based on steam-flaked corn. The Professional Animal scientist 23:632-636.

454 Singh, Abinav K; Praveen, Shelly; Singh, Bhanu P; Varma, Anupam; Arora, Naveen, 2009, Safety assessment of leaf curl virus resistant tomato developed using viral derived sequences, Transgenic Research, 18(6):877-87

455 Singh, M. D.P. Tiwari, A. Kumar and M. R. Kumar. 2003. Effect of feeding transgenic cottonseed vis-à-vis non-transgenic cottonseed on haematobiochemical constituents in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(12):1732-1737.

456 Singh, M., D.P. Tiwari, A. Kumar and M. R. Kumar. 2002. Effect of feeding transgenic cottonseed vis-à-vis non-transgenic cottonseed on haematobiochemical constituents in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Xth International Congress, Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), Ashok Hotel, New Delhi, India - September 23-27, 2002, p. 257-258, Abstract.

457 Singh, M., D.P. Tiwari, and A. Kumar. 2002. Effects of feeding transgenic cottonseed on nutrients utilization, milk production and its composition in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo. J.

458 Singhal, K., S. Kumar, A.K. Tyagi, and Y. S. Rajput. 2006. Evaluation of Bt cottonseed as a protein supplement in the ration of lactating dairy cows. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 76:532-537.

459 Singhal, K.K., A.K. Tyagi, Y.S. Rajput, M. Singh, T. Perez, and G.F. Hartnell. 2006. Effect of feeding cottonseed produced from Bollgard II® cotton on feed intake, milk production, and milk composition in lactating crossbred cows. XIIth Animal Science Congress 2006 Congress Proceedings – Abstracts, P.757.

460 Sissener, N.H., M. Sanden, A.M. Bakke, Å. Krogdahl, and G.-I. Hemre. 2009. A long term trial with Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified soy; focusing general health and performance before, during and after the parr-smolt transformation. Aquaculture 294:108-117.

461 Smyth, Stuart J; Michael Gusta, Kenneth Belcher, Peter W.B. Phillips and David Castle. Environmental impacts from herbicide tolerant canola production in Western Canada. Agricultural Systems, Volume 104, Issue 5, June 2011, Pages 403-410

462 Somoza, V and others (2005). Influence of feeding malt, bread crust, and a pronylated protein on the activity of chemopreventive enzymes and antioxidative defense parameters in vivo, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005, 53:8176–8182.

463 Spencer JD, Allee GL, Sauber TE. (2000) Growing-finishing performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed normal and genetically modified low-phytate corn. J Anim Sci. 78:1529-36.

464 Stanford, K., J.L. Aalhus, M.E.R. Dugan, G.L. Wallins, R. Sharma and T.A. McAllister. 2003. Effects of feeding transgenic canola on apparent digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of lambs. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 83(2):299-305.

465 Stanford,K., T.A. McAllister, J. Aalhus, M. Dugan, and R. Sharma. 2002. Effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant canola meal on lamb growth, meat quality and apparent feed digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 71 Abstract 281.

466 Stanisiewski, E.P., G.F. Hartnell, and D.R. Cook. 2001. Comparison of swine performance when fed diets containing Roundup Ready® corn (GA21), parental line or conventional corn. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):319-320. Abstract 1322.

467 Stanisiewski, E.P., M.L. Taylor, G.F. Hartnell, S.G. Riordan, M.A. Nemeth, B. George, and J.D. Astwood. 2002. Broiler performance when fed Roundup Ready® (event RT73) or conventional canola meal. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):95. Abstract 408.

468 Stein, H.H., D.W. Rice, B.L. Smith, M.A. Hinds, T.E. Sauber, C. Pedersen, D.Wulf, and D.N. Peters. 2007. Evaluation of corn grain with the genetically modified event DAS-59122-7 fed to growing pigs. J.Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 10:512-513. (Abstr.)

469 Stein, H.H., T. E. Sauber , D. W. Rice , M. A. Hinds , B. L. Smith, G. Dana, D. N. Peters, and P. Hunst. 2009. Growth performance and carcass composition of pigs fed corn grain from DASØ15Ø7-1 (Herculex I) hybrids. The Professional Animal Scientist 2:689–694.

470 Stein, H.H., T. Sauber, D. Rice, M. Hinds, D. Peters, G. Dana, and P. Hunst. 2004. Comparison of corn grain from biotech and non-biotech counterparts for grow-finish pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):328-329. Abstract W65.

471 Stein, H.H., T.E. Sauber, D.W. Rice, M.A. Hinds, B.L. Smith, G. Dana, D.N. Peters, and P. Hunst. 2009. Growth performance and carcass composition of pigs fed corn grain from DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (Herculex I) hybrids. The Professional Animal Scientist 25:689-694.

472 Steinke K, Guertler P, Paul V, Wiedemann S, Ettle T, Albrecht C, Meyer HH, Spiekers H, Schwarz FJ. Effects of long-term feeding of genetically modified corn (event MON810) on the performance of lactating dairy cows. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2010 Jun 22 [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 20579187

473 Steinke, K., V. Paul, P. Gürtler, W. Preiβinger, S. Wiedemann, C. Albrecht, H. Spiekers, H.H.D. Meyer, and F.J. Schwarz. 2009. Effects of long-term feeding of genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON 810) on dairy cows. Book of Abstracts of the 60th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal production, Book of Abstract No. 15 (2009), Barcelona, Spain, 24-27August 2009, P.349.

474 Sten E, Skov PS, Andersen SB, Torp AM, Olesen A, Bindslev-Jensen U, Poulsen LK, Bindslev-Jensen C. 2004. A comparative study of the allergenic potency of wild-type and glyphosate-tolerant gene-modified soybean cultivars. APMIS. 2004 Jan;112(1):21-8.

475 Sung, H.G., D.Y. Li, S.Y. Lee, S.S. Lee, N.J. Choi, J.Y. Ko, and J.K. Ha. 2004. Comparison between normal and genetically modified corn in their effects on rumen fermentation. Proc. 11th AAAP Congress 2004 Vol. 3:271-273.

476 Swiatkiewiez, S. and E. Hanczakowska. 2009. The effect of genetically modified components on fattening results and meat quality in pigs. Conference Materials from XXXVIII Scientific Session of the Committee on Animal Science – “Genetically Modified Feeds and Conventional Feeds in Animal Nutrition”. Balice, Poland May 28-29, 2009, P. 93-94.

477 Swiatkiewiez, S., J. Koreleski, and A. Arezewska. 2009. Egg performance and egg quality in laying hens and production indices in broiler chickens fed diets containing genetically modified components. Conference Materials from XXXVIII Scientific Session of the Committee on Animal Science – “Genetically Modified Feeds and Conventional Feeds in Animal Nutrition”. Balice, Poland May 28-29, 2009, P.103-104.

478 SWINE: Potato containing 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and 1-FFT (fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke, Cynara scolymus

479 Takahashi, H. Hotta, Y. Hayashi, M. Kawai-Yamada, M. Komatsu, S. Uchimiya, H. 2005. High throughput metabolome and proteome analysis of transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Biotechnol 22, 47–50.

480 Tang M, Xie T, Cheng W, Qian L, Yang S, Yang D, Cui W, Li K. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats. Transgenic Res. 2011 Sep 11.

481 Tatli, F; Gullu, M; Ozdemir, F, 2004, Determination of Fungi Species, Relationships Between Ear Infection Rates and Fumonisin Quantities in Bt Maize, Bulletin OILB/SROP. Proceedings of the meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'GMOs in Integrated Production', entitled Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms, 27(3):161-164

482 Taylor M, Hartnell G, Lucas D, Davis S, Nemeth M. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans. Poult Sci. 2007 Dec;86(12):2608-14.

483 Taylor M, Hartnell G, Nemeth M, Lucas D, Davis S.(2007) Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from second-generation insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant, conventional control or commercial reference corn. Poult Sci. 2007 Sep;86(9):1972-9.

484 Taylor M, Lucas D, Nemeth M, Davis S, Hartnell G. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing combined trait insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x NK603), control, or conventional reference corn.(2007) Poult Sci. 2007 Sep;86(9):1988-94.

485 Taylor ML, Hartnell G, Nemeth M, Karunanandaa K, George B.(2005) Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing corn grain with insect-protected (corn rootworm and European corn borer) and herbicide-tolerant (glyphosate) traits, control corn, or commercial reference corn.Poult Sci. 2005 Apr;84(4):587-93. Corrected and republished in: Poult Sci. 2005 Dec;84(12):1893-9.

486 Taylor ML, Hartnell GF, Riordan SG, Nemeth MA, Karunanandaa K, George B, Astwood JD (2003) Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from roundup ready (NK603), yieldgard x roundup ready (MON810 x NK603), non-transgenic control, or commercial corn. Poult Sci. 82:443-53.

487 Taylor ML, Hyun Y, Hartnell GF, Riordan SG, Nemeth MA, Karunanandaa K, George B, Astwood JD. (2003) Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from YieldGard Rootworm (MON863), YieldGard Plus (MON810 x MON863), nontransgenic control, or commercial reference corn hybrids. Poult Sci. 82:1948-56

488 Taylor ML, Stanisiewski EP, Riordan SG, Nemeth MA, George B, Hartnell GF (2004) Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing roundup ready (Event RT73), nontransgenic control, or commerical canola meal (vol 83, pg 456, 2004). Poultry Science 83:1758

489 Taylor ML, Stanisiewski EP, Riordan SG, Nemeth MA, George B, Hartnell GF 2004 Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing roundup ready (event RT73), nontransgenic control, or commercial canola meal. Poult Sci 83:456-461

490 Taylor, Janet; King, Ross D; Altmann, Thomas; Fiehn, Oliver, 2002, Application of metabolomics to plant genotype discrimination using statistics and machine learning., Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 18(Suppl 2):S241-8

491 Taylor, M. D. Lucas, M. Nemeth, S. Davis, and G. Hartnell. 2007. Comparison of Broiler Performance and Carcass Parameters When Fed Diets Containing Combined Trait Insect-Protected and Glyphosate-Tolerant Corn (MON 89034 x NK603), Control, or Conventional Reference Corn. Poult. Sci. 86: 1988-1994.

492 Taylor, M., G. Hartnell, D. Lucas, S. Davis, and M. Nemeth. 2007. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from Glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans. Poult. Sci. 86:2608-2614.

493 Taylor, M., G. Hartnell, M. Nemeth, D. Lucas, and S. Davis. 2007. Comparison of Broiler Performance When Fed Diets Containing Grain from Second-Generation Insect-Protected and Glyphosate-Tolerant, Conventional Control or Commercial Reference Corn. Poult. Sci. 86: 1972-1979.

494 Taylor, M.L., B. George, Y. Hyun, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, and G. F. Hartnell. 2004.Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing corn with a combination of insect-protected (MON 863, MON 810) and glyphosate-tolerant (NK603) traits, control, and commercial corn. Poult. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):323. Abstract W40.

495 Taylor, M.L., B. George, Y. Hyun, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, and G. F. Hartnell. 2004.Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing insect-protected (MON 88017 or MON 88017 x MON 810), control, or commercial corn. Poult. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):322. Abstract W39.

496 Taylor, M.L., B. George, Y. Hyun, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, T.T. Lohrmann, and G.F. Hartnell. 2004. Broiler performance and carcass parameters of broiler fed diets containing lysine maize. Poult. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):315. Abstract W10.

497 Taylor, M.L., B. George, Y. Hyun, S.G. Riordan, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, and G.F. Hartnell. 2003. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing insect-protected YieldGard® Plus (MON 810 x MON 863), non-transgenic control, or commercial corn. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):65. Abstract 274.

498 Taylor, M.L., D.M. Lucas, S.W. Davis, M.A. Nemeth, and G.F. Hartnell. 2007. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing combined trait insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 × NK603), control, or conventional reference corn. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):70-71. (Abstr.)

499 Taylor, M.L., D.M. Lucas, S.W. Davis, M.A. Nemeth, and G.F. Hartnell. 2007. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control or conventional reference soybeans. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):71. (Abstr.)

500 Taylor, M.L., E.P. Stanisiewski, S.G. Riordan, M.A. Nemeth, B. George, and G.F. Hartnell. 2004.Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing Roundup Ready (Event RT73), nontransgenic control, or commercial canola meal. Poult. Sci. 83:456-461.

501 Taylor, M.L., G. F. Hartnell, S.G. Riordan, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, B. George, and J.D. Astwood. 2003. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from YieldGard® (MON810), YieldGard® x Roundup Ready®(GA21), non-transgenic control, or commercial corn. Poultry Sci. 82:823-830.

502 Taylor, M.L., G. Hartnell, M. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, and B. George. 2005. Comparison of Broiler Performance When Fed Diets Containing Corn Grain with Insect-Protected (Corn Rootworm and European Corn Borer) and Herbicide-Tolerant (Glyphosate) Traits, Control Corn, or Commercial Reference Corn - Revisited. Poultry Science 84:1893-1899.

503 Taylor, M.L., G. Hartnell, M. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, and B. George. 2005. Comparison of Broiler Performance When Fed Diets Containing Corn Grain with Insect-Protected (Corn Rootworm and European Corn Borer) and Herbicide-Tolerant (Glyphosate) Traits, Control Corn, or Commercial Reference Corn. Poultry Science 84:587-593.

504 Taylor, M.L., G.F. Hartnell, J.D. Astwood, M.A. Nemeth, and B. George. 2002. Comparison of broiler performance when diets containing MON863 (Corn Rootworm Protection), non-transgenic control, or commercial corn. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):95. Abstract 406.

505 Taylor, M.L., G.F. Hartnell, J.D. Astwood, M.A. Nemeth, and B. George. 2002. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing YieldGard® (MON810) x Roundup Ready® (NK603), nontransgenic control, or commercial corn. Poult. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):95. Abstract 405.

506 Taylor, M.L., G.F. Hartnell, M.A. Nemeth, B. George, and J.D. Astwood. 2001. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing Roundup Ready® corn event NK603, parental line, or commercial corn. Poult. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):320. Abstract 1323.

507 Taylor, M.L., G.F. Hartnell, M.A. Nemeth, B. George, and J.D. Astwood. 2001. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing YieldGard® and Roundup Ready® corn, parental lines, or commercial corn. Poult. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):319. Abstract 1321.

508 Taylor, M.L., G.F. Hartnell, M.A. Nemeth, S.W. Davis, S.G. Riordan, D.M. Lucas and K.C. Glenn. 2008. Comparison of performance and carcass parameters for broilers fed diets containing corn with single and multiple genetically enhanced traits using a combine study analysis. Poultry Science 87(Supplement 1):95. Abstract MP301.

509 Taylor, M.L., G.F. Hartnell, S.G. Riordan, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, B. George, and J.D. Astwood. 2003. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from Roundup ready (NK603), YieldGard x Roundup Ready (MON810 x NK603), non-transgenic control, or commercial corn. Poultry Sci. 82:443-453.

510 Taylor, M.L., Y. Hyun, G.F. Hartnell, S.G. Riordan, M.A. Nemeth, K. Karunanandaa, B. George, and J.D. Astwood. 2003. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from YieldGard Rootworm (MON863), YieldGard Plus (MON810 x MON863), nontransgenic control, or commercial reference corn hybrids. Poultry Science 82:1948-1956.

511 Taylor, N.B., Fuchs, R.L., MacDonald, J., Shariff, A.B., Padgette, S.R. (1999). Compositional analysis of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans treated with glyphosate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 4469–4473.

512 Teshima R, Watanabe T, Okunuki H, Isuzugawa K, Akiyama H, Onodera H, Imai T, Toyoda M, Sawada J. (2002) Effect of subchronic feeding of genetically modified corn (CBH351) on immune system in BN rats and B10A mice. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 43:273-9.

513 Teshima, R., Akiyama, H., Okunuki, H., Sakushima, J-i., Goda, Y., Onodera, H., Sawada, J-i., Toyoda, M. (2000). Effect of GM and Non-GM soybeans on the immune system of BN rats and B10A mice. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jpn. 41, 188–193.

514 Thigpen JE. 2004. Selecting the appropriate rodent diet for endocrine disruptor research and testing studies. ILAR Journal. 45:401-416.

515 Thomas, K; Aalbers, M, M; Bannon, G A; Bartels, M; Dearman, R J; Esdaile, D J; Fu, T J; Glatt, C M; Hadfield, N; Hatzos, C; Hefle, S L; Heylings, J R; Goodman, R E; Henry, B; Herouet, C; Holsapple, M; Ladics, G S; Landry, T D; MacIntosh, S C; Rice, E A; Privalle, L S; Steiner, H Y; Teshima, R; Van Ree, R; Woolhiser, M; Zawodny, J, 2004, A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins., Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 39(2):87-98

516 Tian J-C, Chen Y, Li Z-L, Li K, Chen M, et al. (2012) Transgenic Cry1Ab Rice Does Not Impact Ecological Fitness and Predation of a Generalist Spider. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35164. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035164

517 Tiwari, D.P., A. Kumar, B.C. Mondal, D. Pandey, and I. Pandey. 2007. Effect of feeding transgenic brinjal fruits on milk production and composition in lactating crossbred cows. International Tropical Animal Nutrition Conference Vol II:265-266. Abstract October 4-7, 2007, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal India.

518 Tiwari, D.P., B.C. Mondal, A. Kumar, P.C. SAxena, and I. Pandey. 2007. Effect of feeding transgenic Bt. Brinjal fruits on feed intake, nutrient utilization and body weight change in lactating crossbred cows.. International Tropical Animal Nutrition Conference Vol II:265. Abstract October 4-7, 2007, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal India.

519 Tony MA, Butschke A, Broll H, Grohmann L, Zagon J, Halle I, Dänicke S, Schauzu M, Hafez HM, Flachowsky G. Safety assessment of Bt 176 maize in broiler nutrition: degradation of maize-DNA and its metabolic fate. Arch Tierernahr. 2003 Aug;57(4):235-52.

520 Tony, M. A., A. Butschke, H. Broll, J. Zagon, M. Schauzu, I. Halle, S. Dänicke, and G. Flachowsky. 2003. Fate of DNA from isogenic and transgenic (Bt 176) maize after feeding to broilers (Abbau von DNA aus isogenem und transgenem (Bt 176) Mais in Broilern). Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 12:109.

521 Tony, M., H. Broll, J. Zagon, I. Halle, F. Farouk, B. Edris, S. Awadalla, K. Bögl, M. Schauzu and G. Flachowsky. 2002. Detection and impact of Bt 176 maize on broiler health and performance. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:197.

522 Trabalza-Marinucci, M., G. Brandi, C. Rondini, L. Avellini, C. Giammarini, S. Costarelli, G. Acuti, C. Orlandi, G. Filippini, E. Chiaradia, M. Malatesta, S. Crotti, C. Antonini, G. Amagliani, E. Manuali, A.R. Mastrogiacomo, L. Moscati, M.N. Haouet, A. Gaiti, and M. Magnani. 2008. A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep. Livestock Science 113:178-190.

523 Trabalza-Marinuccia, Massimo et. al. (2008) A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep. Livestock Science Volume 113, Issues 2-3, February 2008, Pages 178-190

524 Tudisco R, M. I. Cutrignelli, S. Calabrò, A. Guglielmelli, F. (2007) ITAL.J.ANIM.SCI. VOL. 6 (SUPPL. 1), 380-382, Investigation on genetically modified soybean (RoundUp Ready) in goat nutrition: DNA detection in suckling kids

525 Tudisco R, V. Mastellone, M. I. Cutrignelli, P. Lombardi, F. Bovera, N. Mirabella, G. Piccolo, S. Calabro, L. Avallone and F. Infascell (2010). Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings. Animal  doi:10.1017/S1751731110000728

526 Tudisco, R; Infascelli, F; Cutrignelli, M; Bovera, F; Morcia, C; Faccioli, P; Terzi, V, 2006, Fate of Feed Plant DNA Monitored in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), Livestock Science, 105(1 - 3):12 - 18

527 Tudisco, R., Lombardi, P., Bovera, F., D’Angelo, D., Cutrignelli, M.I., Mastellone, V., Terzi, V., Avallone, L., Infascelli, F., 2006. Genetically modified soya bean in rabbit feeding: detection of DNA fragments and evaluation of metabolic effects by enzymatic analysis. Anim. Sci. 82: 193–199.

528 Tudisco, R., P. Lombardi, F. Bovera, D. d'Angelo, M.I. Cutrignelli, V. Mastelione, V. Terzi, L. Avallone, and F. Infascelli. 2006. Genetically modified soya bean in rabbit feeding: detection of DNA fragments and evaluation of metabolic effects by enzymatic analysis. Animal Science 82:193-199.

529 Turturo, Camilla; Friscina, Arianna; Gaubert, Stéphane; Jacquemond, Mireille; Thompson, Jeremy R; Tepfer, Mark, 2008, Evaluation of potential risks associated with recombination in transgenic plants expressing viral sequences., The Journal of General Virology, 89(Pt 1):327-35

530 Tutel'ian VA, Gapparov MM, Avren'eva LI, Aksiuk IN, Guseva GV, Kravchenko LV, L'vova LS, Saprykin VP, Tyshko NV, Chernysheva ON (2009).[Medical and biological safety assessment of genetically modified maize strain MIR604]Vopr Pitan. 2009;78(2):24-32. Russian.

531 Tutel'ian VA, Kravchenko LV, Lashneva NV, Avren'eva LI, Guseva GV, Sorokina EIu, Chernysheva ON 1999 [Medical and biological evaluation of safety of protein concentrate from genetically-modified soybeans. Biochemical studies] [Article in Russian]. Vopr Pitan. 68:9-12.

532 Twardowski T, Potkanski A, Pruszynski SAK (2003) A note on silage from genetically modified maize tested for biological activity. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 12:759-764

533 Tyshko NV, Britsina MV, Gmoshinskiĭ IV, Zhanataev AK, Zakharova NS, Zorin SN, Mazo VK, Semenov BF (2008) [Medical and biological safety assessment of genetically modified maize event MON 88017. Report 2. Genotoxicologic, immunologic and allergologic examinations] [Article in Russian] Vopr Pitan. 2008;77(5):13-7.

534 USDA-APHIS (2007). Approval of USDA-ARS Request (04-264-01P) Seeking a Determination of Non-regulated Status for C5 Plum Resistant to Plum pox Virus. Finding of No Significant Impact and Decision Notice.

535 Van Deynze, A., Bradford, K. J., and Van Eenennaam, A (2004) Crop biotechnology: Feeds for livestock. Div.Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8145, Univ.of California-Davis Pub. 8145, 1-6. 2004.

536 Vander Pol KJ, Erickson GE, Robbins ND, Berger LL, Wilson CB, Klopfenstein TJ, Stanisiewski EP, Hartnell GF.(2005)E ffects of grazing residues or feeding corn from a corn rootworm-protected hybrid (MON 863) compared with reference hybrids on animal performance and carcass characteristics. J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec;83(12):2826-34.

537 Vander Pol, K., J. Simon, G. Erickson, T. Klopfenstein, E. Stanisiewski, and G. Hartnell. 2003.Feeding transgenic (Bt corn rootworm protected and Roundup Ready®) corn to feedlot cattle. Neb. Beef Rep. MP 80-A:30-32.

538 Vander Pol, K.J., G. E. Erickson, N. D. Robbins, L. L. Berger, C. B.Wilson, T. J. Klopfenstein, E. P. Stanisiewski, and G. F. Hartnell. 2005. Effects of grazing residues or feeding corn from a corn rootworm-protected hybrid (MON 863) compared with reference hybrids on animal performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim Sci. 83:2826-2834.

539 Vander Pol, K.J., G.E. Erickson, C.N. Macken, M.P. Blackford, T.J. Klopfenstein, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2002. Effect of corn root worm protected corn (event MON863) on performance in beef feedlot diets. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):46. Abstract 180.

540 Vazquez Padron, R.I., Gonzalez Cabrera, J., Garcia Tovar, C., Neri Bazan, L., Lopez Revilla, R., Hernandez, M., Morena Fierros, L., De la Riva, G.A. (2000). Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. kurstaki HD73 binds to surface proteins in the mouse small intestine. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 271, 54–58.

541 Vazquez Padron, R.I., Moreno Fierros, L., Neri Bazan, L., De la Riva, G.A., Lopez Revilla, R., (1999). Intragastric and intraperitoneal administration of Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis induces systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice. Life Sci. 64, 1897–1912.

542 Vecchio, L., Cisterna, B., Malatesta, M., Martin, T.E., Biggiogera, M., 2004. Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Eur. J. Histochem. 48, 448–454.

543 Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe, 2008, Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(19):9206-14

544 Vogler U, Rott AS, Gessler C, Dorn S (2009). Terpene-mediated parasitoid host location behavior on transgenic and classically bred apple genotypes.J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 12;57(15):6630-5.

545 Vogler, Ute; Anja S. Rott, Cesare Gessler & Silvia Dorn. How transgenic and classically bred apple genotypes affect non-target organisms on higher trophic levels. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 134 Issue 2, Pages 114 - 121

546 Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia, 2009, Terpene-mediated parasitoid host location behavior on transgenic and classically bred apple genotypes., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(15):6630-5

547 Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia, 2010, Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars., Transgenic Research, 19(1):77-89

548 von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J F; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg, 2011, Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat, Biology Letters, 7(3):387-91

549 von Wettstein D, Warner J, Kannangara CG (2003) Supplements of transgenic malt or grain containing (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase increase the nutritive value of barley-based broiler diets to that of maize. British Poultry Science 44:438-449

550 Wainwright, P.E., Huang, Y.-S., De Michele, S.J., Xing, H., Liu, J.-W., Chuang, L.-T., Biederman, J., 2003. Effects of high-c-linolenic acid canola oil compared with borage oil on reproduction, growth, and brain and behavioral development in mice. Lipids 38, 171–178.

551 Wakasa, Kyo; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Fumio; Miyazawa, Haruna; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Morino, Keiko; Komatsu, Akira; Yamada, Tetsuya; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Miyagawa, Hisashi, 2006, High-level tryptophan accumulation in seeds of transgenic rice and its limited effects on agronomic traits and seed metabolite profile., Journal of Experimental Botany, 57(12):3069-78

552 Walsh MC, Buzoianu SG, Gardiner GE, Rea MC, Gelencsér E, et al. (2011) Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27177. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027177

553 Walsh, M.C., S.G. Buzoianu, G.E. Gardiner, M.C. Rea, R.P. Ross, and P.G. Lawlor. 2010. Short-term feeding of genetically modified Bt maize (MON810) to weanling pigs: Effects on gut microbiota, intestinal morphology and immune status. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):495. Abstract M508.

554 Walsh, Maria C; Stefan G. Buzoianu1, Gillian E. Gardiner, Mary C. Rea, R. Paul Ross, Joseph P. Cassidy and Peadar G. Lawlor.Effects of short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize on growth performance, organ morphology and function in pigs. British Journal of Nutrition (2012), 107, 364–371 doi:10.1017/S0007114511003011

555 Wang, Z.H., Wang, Y., Cui, H.R., Xia, Y.W., Altosaar, I., 2002. Toxicological evaluation of transgenic rice flour with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82, 738–744.

556 Weakley, D., D. R. Mertens, and M. McCaslin. 2008. Lactating cow responses to alfalfa hays with down-regulated lignin biosynthesis. Journal Dairy Science 91(E Supplement 1):170 Abstract 184/ Journal of Animal Science 86(E Supplement 2):170 Abstract 184.

557 Weber, T.E. and B.T. Richert. 2001. Grower-finisher growth performance and carcass characteristics including attempts to detect transgenic plant DNA and protein in muscle from pigs fed genetically modified “Bt” corn. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 2)67. Abstract 162.

558 Weber, T.E., B.T. Richert, D.C. Kendall, K.A. Bowers and C.T. Herr. 2000. Grower-Finisher Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Pigs Fed Genetically Modified “Bt” Corn. Purdue University 2000 Swine Day Report, http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/swine/swineday/sday00/psd07-2000.html.

559 Weekes, Rebecca, Theodore Allnutt, Caroline Boffey, Sarah Morgan, Mark Bilton, Roger Daniels and Christine Henry (2008) A study of crop-to-crop gene flow using farm scale sites of fodder maize ( Zea mays L.) in the UK Transgenic Res (2007) 16: 203–211.

560 Weisbjerg, M.R., S. Purup, M. Vestergaard, T. Hvelplund and K. Sejrsen. 2001. Undersøgelser af genmodificerede foderroer til malkeløer. DJF Rapport 25, Husdrybrug, Ministeriet for Fødevarer, Landbrug og Fiskeri, Denmark.

561 Weisbjerg, M.R., T. Hvelplund, S. Puruo, M. Vestergaard and K. Sejrsen. 2001. Genetically modified beets and beet pulp as feeds for ruminants. Experiments with sheep and dairy cattle at Research Centre Foulum, Denmark. Proceedings: International Symposium on genetically Modified Crops and Co-products as Feeds for Livestock, pp 37-40. September, Nitra, Slovak Republic.

562 White, C.L., L.M. Tabe, H.Dove, J. Hamblin, P.Young, N. Phillips, R. Taylor, S. Gulati, J. Ashes, and T.J.V. Higgins. Online: 2000. Increased efficiency of wool growth and live weight gain in Merino sheep fed transgenic lupin seed containing sunflower albumin. J.Sci. Food Agric. 81:147-154.

563 Wiedemann, S; Gürtler, P; Albrecht, C, 2007, Effect of feeding cows genetically modified maize on the bacterial community in the bovine rumen., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(24):8012-7

564 Wiedemann, S., Lutz, B., Kurtz, H., Schwarz, F.J., & Albrecht, C. (2006) In situ studies on the time-dependent degradation of recombinant corn DNA and protein in the bovine rumen. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 1, pp 135-144

565 Williams GM, Kroes R, Munro IC. (2000). Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for human. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 31:117–165.

566 Williams WP, Windham GL, Buckley PM and Daves CA (2002) Aflatoxin accumulation in conventional and transgenic corn hybrids infested with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J Agric Urban Entomol 19(4): 227–236.

567 Wilson, C.B., C.N. Macken. G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, and E. Stanisiewski. 2003. Utilization of genetically enhanced corn residue for grazing. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 2):107. Abstract 335.

568 Wilson, C.B., C.N. Macken. G.E. Erickson, T.J. Klopfenstein, and E. Stanisiewski. 2003. Utilization of genetically enhanced corn residue on grazing steer performance. 2003 Nebraska Beef Report, pages 18-19.

569 Windels P, Taverniers I, Depicker A, Van Bockstaele E, De Loose M (2001) Characterisation of the Roundup Ready soybean insert Eur Food Res Technol 213:107–112.

570 Yonemochi, C. T. Ikeda, C. Harada, T. Kusama, and M.Hanazum. 2003. Influence of transgenic corn (CBH 351, named Starlink) on health condition of dairy cows and transfer of Cry9C protein and cry9c gene to milk, blood, liver and muscle. Animal Sci. J. 74:81-88.

571 Yonemochi, C., H. Fujisaki, C. Harada, T. Kusama, and M. Hanazumi. 2002. Evaluation of transgenic event CBH 351 (Starlink) corn in broiler chicks. Animal Sci. J. 73:221-228.

572 Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liu, Haiyan; Lu, Jiao; Su, Chunyuan; Huang, Kunlun, 2011, Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on faecal microflora of rats during 90 day supplementation, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(11):2066-72

573 Zdunczyk Z, Frejnagel S, Fornal J, Flis M, Palacios MC, Flis B, Zagorski-Ostoja W (2005) Biological response of rat fed diets with high tuber content of conventionally bred and transgenic potato resistant to necrotic strain of potato virus (PVYN) Part I. Chemical composition of tubers and nutritional value of diets. Food Control 16:761-766

574 Zdunczyk Z, Juskiewicz J, Fornal J, Mazur-Gonkowska B, Koncicki A, Flis B, Zimnoch-Guzowska E, Zagorski-Ostoja W (2005) Biological response of rat fed diets with high tuber content of conventionally bred and transgenic potato resistant to necrotic strain of potato virus (PVYN). Part II. Caecal metabolism, serum enzymes and indices of non-specific defence of rats. Food Control 16:767-772

575 Zeilinger A R,  David A. Andow, Claudia Zwahlen,  and Guenther Stotzky (2010) Earthworm populations in a northern U.S. Cornbelt soil are not affected by long-term cultivation of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 proteins. Soil Biology and Biochemistry Article in Press, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.04.004

576 Zeller, Simon L; Kalinina, Olena; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Schmid, Bernhard, 2010, Transgene x environment interactions in genetically modified wheat., PloS One, 5(7):e11405

577 Zhang, Jun; Cai, Lin; Cheng, Jiaqin; Mao, Huizhu; Fan, Xiaoping; Meng, Zhaohong; Chan, Ka Man; Zhang, Huijun; Qi, Jianfei; Ji, Lianghui; Hong, Yan, 2008, Transgene integration and organization in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome., Transgenic Research, 17(2):293-306

578 Zhang, Z.B., E.T. Kornegay, J.S. Radcliffe, D. M. Denbow, H.P. Veit, and C.T. Larson. 2000. Comparison of genetically engineered microbial and plant phytase for young broilers. Poultry Sci. 79:709-717.

579 Zhang, Z.B., E.T. Kornegay, J.S. Radcliffe, J.H. Wilson, and H.P. Veit. 2000. Comparison of genetically engineered microbial and plant phytase for young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2868-2878.

580 Zhu Y, Li D, Wang F, Yin J, Jin H (2004) Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from Roundup Ready or conventional soybeans using rats.

581 Zhuo Q, Chen X, Piao J, Gu L (2004) [Study on food safety of genetically modified rice which expressed cowpea trypsin inhibitor by 90 day feeding test on rats] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 33:176-9.

582 Zhuo Q, Chen X, Piao J, Han C (2004) [Study on the teratogenicity effects of genetically modified rich which expressed cowpea trypsin inhibitor on rats] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 33:74-7.

583 Zolla, Lello; Rinalducci, Sara; Antonioli, Paolo; Righetti, Pier Giorgio, 2008, Proteomics as a complementary tool for identifying unintended side effects occurring in transgenic maize seeds as a result of genetic modifications., Journal of Proteome Research, 7(5):1850-61

584 Zywicki Britta , Gareth Catchpole, John Draper, and Oliver Fiehn. 2004. Comparison of rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS methods for determination of glycoalkaloids in transgenic field grown potatoes. Analytical Biochemistry . UK Food Safety Authority Under G02006: Metabolome technology for the profiling of GM and conventionally bred plant materials

585 Qi X, et al. Subchronic feeding study of stacked trait genetically-modified soybean (3Ø5423×40-3-2) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2012 (web)

586 Buzoianu SG, Walsh MC, Rea MC, O'Sullivan O, Crispie F, Cotter PD, Ross RP, Gardiner GE, Lawlor PG. The effect of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on intestinal microbiota. PLoS One 7(5):e33668. 2012

587 Gilles-Eric Séralini, Emilie Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge, Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 50, Issue 11, November 2012, 4221–4231 Paper retracted by the journal in November 2013

588 Buzoianu SG, Walsh MC, Rea MC, O'Donovan O, Gelencsér E, et al. Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material. PLoS ONE 7(10):e47851.

589 Nakamura, Noriko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Katsumoto, Yukihisa;
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590 Nakamura, Noriko; Tems, Ursula; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Chandler, Steve; Matsuda,
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591 Schuppener M, Mühlhause J, Müller AK, Rauschen S. Environmental risk assessment for the small tortoiseshell Aglais urticae and a stacked Bt-maize with combined resistances against Lepidoptera and Chrysomelidae in central European agrarian landscapes. Mol Ecol. 2012 Sep;21(18):4646-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05716.x. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

592 Rui-Yun Lee, Daniela Reiner, Gerhard Dekan, Andrew E. Moore, T. J. V. Higgins, Michelle M. Epstein. Genetically Modified α-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (1): e52972 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052972

593 SANDEN, M., KROGDAHL, Å., BAKKE-MCKELLEP, A.M., BUDDINGTON, R.K. and HEMRE, G.-I. (2006), Growth performance and organ development in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. parr fed genetically modified (GM) soybean and maize. Aquaculture Nutrition, 12: 1–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2006.00367.x

594  Jinni Gu, Åshild Krogdahl, Nini H. Sissener, Trond M. Kortner, Eva Gelencser, Gro-Ingunn Hemre and Anne Marie Bakke. Effects of oral Bt-maize (MON810) exposure on growth and health parameters in normal and sensitised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.. British Journal of Nutrition, available on CJO2012. doi:10.1017/S000711451200325X.

595 Bryan Delaney, Sule Karaman, Jason Roper, Denise Hoban, Greg Sykes, Pushkor Mukerji, Steven R. Frame, Thirteen week rodent feeding study with grain from molecular stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran protected (DP-ØØ4114-3) maize, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Available online 20 December 2012, ISSN 0278-6915, 10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.002.


596 Agnès E. Ricroch, Assessment of GE food safety using ‘-omics’ techniques and long-term animal feeding studies, New Biotechnology, Available online 17 December 2012, ISSN 1871-6784, 10.1016/j.nbt.2012.12.001.

597 Nancy Podevin and Patrick du Jardin, Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants. GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain. 3(4):296-300 2012 DOI:10.4161/gmcr.21406

598 Reichert, M., Kozaczyński, W., Karpińska, T., et al. (2013). Histopathology of Internal Organs of Farm Animals Fed Genetically Modified Corn and Soybean Meal. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 56(4), pp. 419-689. Retrieved 23 Jan. 2013, from doi:10.2478/v10213-012-0109-y

599 Fausti, S. W., McDonald, T. M., Lundgren, J. G., Li, J., Keating, A.R. and Catangui, M. (2012). Insecticide use and crop selection in regions with high GM adoption rates. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 27 (4): 295-304://WOS:000310549800006

600 A.M. Mannion and Stephen Morse. Biotechnology in agriculture: Agronomic and environmental considerations and reflections based on 15 years of GM crops. Progress in Physical Geography December 2012 36: 747-763, first published on August 21, 2012 doi:10.1177/0309133312457109

    Exhibit 4

    Baseline studies providing comparative data, and assessment of on variability and unexpected outcomes from conventional breeding.


    Crop Composition Database (International Life Sciences Institute)


    Assessing the natural variability in crop composition.
    Harrigan GG, Glenn KC, Ridley WP.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;58(3 Suppl):S13-20. Epub 2010 Sep 9.
    Abstract
    The number of evaluations of the nutrient composition of food and feed crops has increased over the past 15years due to the introduction of new crops using the tools of modern biotechnology. The composition of these crops has been extensively compared with conventional (non-transgenic) controls as an integral part of the comparative safety assessment process. Following guidelines outlined in the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Consensus Documents, most of these studies have incorporated field trials at multiple geographies and a diverse range of commercially available varieties/hybrids that are analyzed to understand natural variability in composition due to genetic and environmental influences. Using studies conducted in the US, Argentina and Brazil over multiple growing seasons, this report documents the effect of geography, growing season, and genetic background on soybean composition where fatty acids and isoflavones were shown to be particularly variable. A separate investigation of 96 different maize hybrids grown at three locations in the US demonstrated that levels of free amino acids, sugars/polyols, and molecules associated with stress response can vary to a greater degree than that observed for more abundant components. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) crop composition database has proven to be an important resource for collecting and disseminating nutrient composition data to promote a further understanding of the variability that occurs naturally in crops used for food and feed.

    Environmental Effects on Allergen Levels in Commercially Grown Non-Genetically Modified Soybeans: Assessing Variation Across North America

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch, and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing broadly in processed food products. As is true with many edible seeds, soybeans contain proteins that are anti-nutritional factors and allergens. Soybean, along with milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, and wheat, elicit a majority of food allergy reactions in the United States. Soybean seed composition can be affected by breeding, and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, moisture, insect/pathogen load, and/or soil nutrient levels). The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and environment on allergen and anti-nutritional proteins in soybean. To address genetic and environmental effects, four varieties of non-GM soybeans were grown in six geographically distinct regions of North America (Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Ontario, and Pennsylvania). Absolute quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry can be achieved with a technique called multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), during which signals from an endogenous protein are compared to those from a synthetic heavy-labeled internal standard. Using MRM, eight allergens were absolutely quantified for each variety in each environment. Statistical analyses show that for most allergens, the effects of environment far outweigh the differences between varieties brought about by breeding.
    Front Plant Sci. 2012; 3: 196.
    Published online 2012 August 27. doi:  10.3389/fpls.2012.00196
    PMCID: PMC3427918
    Severin E. Stevenson,  Carlotta A. Woods, Bonnie Hong, Xiaoxiao Kong, Jay J. Thelen, and Gregory S. Ladics*



    Allergenic Foods 
    Hefle SL, Julie A. Nordlee, and Steve L. Taylor (1996)
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 36(S):S69-S89

    Dent CE, Schilling GA . Studies on the Absorption of Proteins: the Amino-acid Pattern in the Portal Blood . Biochem. J. 1949; 34 : 318 -335
    Mathews DM. Protein Absoprtion. J.clin Path. 1972; 24,Supp.5 : 29-40
    Mathews DM, Adibi SA. Peptide absorption. Gastroenterology. 1976 Jul;71(1):151-61
    Bowen R. Absoprtion of amino acids and peptides, 2008. www.colostate.edu
    Wickham M, Faulks R, Mills C. In vitro digestion methods for assessing the effect of food structure on allergen breakdown. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Aug;53(8):952-8
    Untersmayr E, Jensen-Jarolim E. The role of protein digestibility and antacids on food allergy outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008; 121: 1301-8.
    Paganelli R, Levinsky RJ. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for detection of circulating food protein antigens in human serum. J Immunol Methods. 1980; 37: 333-41.
    Moreno FJ, Rubio LA, Olano A, Clemente A.. Uptake of 2S albumin allergens, Bere1 and Ses i 1, across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 8631-9.
    Yamada C, Yamashita Y, Seki R, Izumi H, Matsuda T, Kato Y. Digestion and (gastroitestinal absorption of the 14-16-kDa rice allergens. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006; 70: 1890-7.
    Matsubara T, Aoki N, Honjoh T, Mizumachi K, Kurisaki J, Okamjima T, Nadano D, Matsuda T. Absorption, migration and kinetics on peipheral blood of orally administered ovalbumin in a mouse model. Biosciences, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 2008; 72 : 2555-2565
    Husby S., Jensenius J C, Svehag S-E . (1985), Passage of Undegraded Dietary Antigen into the Blood of Healthy Adults. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 1985; 22: 83–92.
    Tsume Y; Taki Y; Sakane T; Nadai I; Sesake I, Watabe K, Kohno T, Yamashita S. Quantitative evaluation of the gastrointestinal absorption of protein into the blood and lymph circulation. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, 1996; 19 : 1332-1337

    Review article about insect protective proteins
    Schnepf E, Crickmore N, Van Rie J, Lereclus D, Baum J, et al. (1998) Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62: 775–806. 


    Review article on natural pesticides
    Jones DA. (1998) Why are so many food plants cyanogenic? Phytochemistry. 1998 Jan;47(2):155-62.
    Source
    Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA.
    Abstract
    A disproportionately large number of the most important human food plants is cyanogenic. The accumulated research of numerous people working in several different disciplines now allows a tenable explanation for this observation. Cyanogenesis by plants is not only a surprisingly effective chemical defence against casual herbivores, but it is also easily overcome by careful pre-ingestion food processing, this latter skill being almost exclusive to humans. Moreover, humans have the physiological ability to detoxify cyanide satisfactorily, given an adequate protein diet. It appears that early in the domestication of crop plants the cyanogenic species would have been relatively free of pests and competitive herbivores, as well as having good nutritional qualities, and thus ideal candidates for cultivation by the first farmers.
    PMID: 9431670 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Glycoalkaloids in potatoes
     Osman, S. F.Food Chem. 1983, 11 ( 4) 235– 247



    Environmental effects on allergen levels in commercially grown non-genetically modified soybeans: assessing variation across North America. 
    Stevenson, S. E.; Woods, C. A.; Hong, B.; kong, X.; Thelen, J. J.; Ladics, G. S.Front. Plant Sci. 2012, 3, 196.

    Mixtures in the real world: the importance of plant self-defense toxicants, mycotoxins, and the human diet Mattsson, J. L Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2007, 223 ( 2) 125– 132

    Research article:
    The genetics of plant metabolism

    Joost J B Keurentjes, Jingyuan Fu, C H Ric de Vos, Arjen Lommen4, Robert D Hall, Raoul J Bino, Linus H W van der Plas, Ritsert C Jansen, Dick Vreugdenhil & Maarten Koornneef, Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Arboretumlaan 4, NL-6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Variation for metabolite composition and content is often observed in plants. However, it is poorly understood to what extent this variation has a genetic basis. Here, we describe the genetic analysis of natural variation in the metabolite composition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Instead of focusing on specific metabolites, we have applied empirical untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS). This uncovered many qualitative and quantitative differences in metabolite accumulation between A. thaliana accessions. Only 13.4% of the mass peaks were detected in all 14 accessions analyzed. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of more than 2,000 mass peaks, detected in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the two most divergent accessions, enabled the identification of QTLs for about 75% of the mass signals. More than one-third of the signals were not detected in either parent, indicating the large potential for modification of metabolic composition through classical breeding.

    We observed considerable quantitative and qualitative variation in the mass profiles of the different accessions... On average, we detected 964 mass peaks per accession, with a minimum of 826 (Col) and a maximum of 1,337 (Cvi). We detected a total of 2,475 different mass peaks; 706 were unique to single accessions, and only 331 were present in all 14 accessions (Fig. 1a). We found an average of 50 unique mass peaks per accession, with a minimum of 14 (Bay-0) and a maximum of 235 (Cvi).

    To uncover loci controlling the observed variation in metabolic profiles, we subsequently analyzed an RIL population derived from a cross between Landsberg erecta (Ler) and Cape Verde Islands (Cvi)13...We found it striking that 853 of a total of 2,129 mass peaks identified in the RIL population were not detected in either parent (Fig. 2a). Although the number of lines analyzed in the RIL population (160 lines measured in duplicate) exceeded that of the number of parental lines (five replicates of each parent measured in duplicate), making the chance of detecting mass peak intensities around the threshold level higher, the observed ratio did not differ much when the threshold was increased modestly (data not shown). This suggests that many metabolites not present in either parent are produced as a result of the recombination of the genomes of the two parents.


    Nature Genetics
    Published online: 4 June 2006; doi:10.1038/ng1815

     Whole-grain and refined wheat flours show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as assessed by a 1H NMR-based metabonomic approach
    Fardet, A., Canlet, C., Gottardi, G., Lyan, B., Llorach, R., Rémésy, C., Mazur, A., Paris, A., Scalbert, A., 2007.. J. Nutr. 137, 923–929. 

    Review
    Plant breeding: importance of plant secondary metabolites for protection against pathogens and herbivores
    M. Wink
    Chemical protection plays a decisive role in the resistance of plants against pathogens and herbivores. The so-called secondary metabolites, which are a characteristic feature of plants, are especially important and can protect plants against a wide variety of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and herbivores (arthropods, vertebrates). As is the situation with all defense systems of plants and animals, a few specialized pathogens have evolved in plants and have overcome the chemical defense barrier. Furthermore, they are often attracted by a given plant toxin. During domestication of our crop and food plants secondary metabolites have sometimes been eliminated. Taking lupins as an example, it is illustrated that quinolizidine alkaloids are important as chemical defense compounds and that the alkaloid-free varieties (ldquosweet lupinsrdquo), which have been selected by plant breeders, are highly susceptible to a wide range of herbivores to which the alkaloid-rich wild types were resistant. The potential of secondary metabolites for plant breeding and agriculture is discussed.

    Theoretical and Applied Genetics
    DOI: 10.1007/BF00303957
    Volume 75, Number 2, January 1988, p 225 - 233 

    Geographic and evolutionary diversification of glucosinolates among near relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)
    Glucosinolates are biologically active secondary metabolites that display both intra- and interspecific variation in the order Brassicales. Glucosinolate profiles have not been interpreted within a phylogenic framework and little is known regarding the processes that influence the evolution of glucosinolate diversity at a macroevolutionary scale. We have analyzed leaf glucosinolate profiles from members of the Brassicaceae that have diverged from Arabidopsis thaliana within the last 15 million years and interpreted our findings relative to the phylogeny of this group. We identified several interspecific polymorphisms in glucosinolate composition. A majority of these polymorphisms are lineage-specific secondary losses of glucosinolate characters, but a gain-of-character polymorphism was also detected. The genetic basis of most observed polymorphisms appears to be regulatory. In the case of A. lyrata, geographic distribution is also shown to contribute to glucosinolate metabolic diversity. Further, we observed evidence of gene-flow between sympatric species, parallel evolution, and the existence of genetic constraints on the evolution of glucosinolates within the Brassicaceae.
    Windsor, A.J. et al. Phytochemistry 66, 1321–1333 (2005).

    Global impact of mutation-derived varieties

    B.S. Ahloowalia1, M. Maluszynski and K. Nichterlein
    Euphytica,Volume 135, Number 2 January 2004 p 187 - 204

    Abstract
    During the past seventy years, world wide more than 2250 varieties have been released that have been derived either as direct mutants or from their progenies. Induction of mutations with radiation has been the most frequently used method for directly developed mutant varieties. The prime strategy in mutation-based breeding has been to upgrade the well-adapted plant varieties by altering one or two major traits, which limit their productivity or enhance their quality value. In this paper, the global impact of mutation-derived varieties on food production and quality enhancement is presented. In addition, the economic contribution of the selectedmutant varieties of rice, barley, cotton,groundnut, pulses, sunflower, rapeseed and Japanese pear is discussed. In several mutation-derived varieties, the changed traits have resulted in synergistic effect on increasing the yield and quality of the crop, improving agronomic inputs, crop rotation, and consumer acceptance. In contrast to the currently protected plantvarieties or germplasm and increasing restrictions on their use, the induced mutants have been freely available for plant breeding. Many mutants have made transnational impact on increasing yield and quality of several seed-propagated crops. Induced mutations will continue tohave an increasing role in creating cropvarieties with traits such as modified oil, protein and starch quality, enhanced uptake of specific metals, deeper rooting system, and resistance to drought, diseases andsalinity as a major component of theenvironmentally sustainable agriculture. Future research on induced mutations would also be important in the functional genomics of many food crops
    (This provides a good outline of the conventional role of genetics in crop improvement ).

    Gilbert-Diamond*, D, K L Cottingham*, J F Gruber, T Punshon, V Sayarath, A J Gandolfi, E R Baker, B Jackson, and M R Karagas. 2011. Arsenic exposure from rice consumption raises a health concern. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press.


    Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JMA. Grapefruit and medication interactions: forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences? CMAJ 2012; DOI:10.1503/cmaj.120951


    Risk Management and Risk Assessment of Novel Plant Foods: Concepts and Principles Knudsen, I., Søborg, I., Eriksen, F., Pilegaard, K., Pedersen, J., (2008) , Food and Chemical Toxicology (2008), doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.01.022
    (Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation)

    1. Introduction
    This paper deals with one segment of the novel foods, namely novel plant foods, with the main focus on novel foods derived from plants not known in the country or region. The paper does not deal with foods derived from genetically modified plants, but only foods derived from cultivated plants that may be developed through conventional breeding or plants from wild sources.
    For nearly all plant foods it is very difficult to obtain scientific data, which document their history of safe consumption even though they may have been eaten for several hundreds of years. Nevertheless according to the regulation of some countries there is a need to establish the safety of novel plant foods in order to accept their introduction on the market.
    While there already exist well established paradigms for safety assessment of isolated and extracted plant products like sugars, fats and defined chemical entities e.g. flavours, there are no commonly accepted international approaches to assess the safety of complex foods such as fruits, vegetables and other plant parts derived from novel sources.
    The purpose of this paper is to propose a set of basic principles and concepts for safety assessment of plant foods, with a main focus on new fruits and vegetables with no history of safe consumption in a country or region and with the final aim to propose a procedure for the safety assessment based upon up-to-date scientific knowledge. This paper is based upon the work by a working group under the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation.

    During the last two decades a lot of attention has been paid to the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms used as food. Several international reports have indicated that the safety assessment strategy recommended for genetically modified foods to a large extent also could be used for other kinds of novel foods. Another conclusion from many of these reports is that very little is known about the potential long-term health effects of any traditional food (e.g. FAO/WHO 2000). Nonetheless, most traditional foods are treated as being safe because no widespread occurrence of acute severe adverse effects is reported after their consumption. Their safety has, however, rarely, if ever, been established. While it has been commonly accepted that for example food additives should be thoroughly tested for safety prior to use in the food production in order to secure that their level in the final food product would not constitute a human health risk, foods from new plant lines or new exotic fruits and vegetables have not been evaluated to the same extent for their potential adverse effects on human health although there are several examples of risks connected to such foods...
    ...
    7. Overall conclusions and recommendations.

    The European Union, Australia/New Zealand and Canada have introduced a pre-market notification or assessment and approval of novel foods in their regulation. The managerial and scientific instruments for the enforcement of this regulation are still under development.

    A special area in this respect is the area of plant foods, where mutually accepted concepts and principles for risk assessment and risk management of novel plant foods are urgently needed to ensure a sufficient global production of safe and nutritious food and a smooth international trade based on mutual acceptance of these foods.

    The Nordic working group has analysed the present regulatory situation and has identified the definitions of novelty and safety in relation to plant foods as the main challenges both globally, regionally and locally.

    The working group recommends the introduction of a two-step management procedure, where the aim is to establish novelty at the first step, and to define extent and commit resources for the safety assessment at the second step.

    Furthermore it is recommended to develop a worldwide net of global, regional, local and ethnobotanical lists of traditional food plants to guide the decision on novelty at the first step and to enable the safety assessment at the second step.

    For a smooth introduction of the so-called novel fruits and vegetables from one region to another the working group recommends to use the “history of use”-concept as the core ingredient of the premarket submission. To the extent that the data submitted by the applicant can support the claim that a product has a history of safe use, the submission can be accepted as such and no further data requested at this point.

    This paper describes “the-state-of-the-art” and gives recommendations in an area of the food safety arena, where only few concepts and ideas are fixed yet by administrative practices and scientific “rules-of-thumb”. Each definitive conclusion needs to be taken with caution, since all potential consequences need to be taken into account and no one forgotten, because these conclusions in the end have great perspectives for the global food supply and the global trade with food commodities and may change the basis for the physical and cultural survival of large and small communities.

    Therefore the working group recommends interactive exchanges of concepts and ideas between management and science in this field as a high priority at the local, regional and global levels as well as between these levels.
    LETTER TO THE EDITOR
    Schouten, Henk J. and Jacobsen, Evert (2007) Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous ? Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2007, Article ID 82612, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2007/82612



    Ali Abdel-Rahman, Njwen Anyangwe, Louis Carlacci, Steve Casper, Rebecca P. Danam, Evaristus Enongene, Gladys Erives, Daniel Fabricant, Ramadevi Gudi, Corey J. Hilmas, Fred Hines, Paul Howard, Dan Levy, Ying Lin, Robert J. Moore, Erika Pfeiler, T. Scott Thurmond, Saleh Turujman, and Nigel J. Walker (2011)
    The Safety and Regulation of Natural Products Used as Foods and Food IngredientsToxicol. Sci. (2011) 123 (2): 333-348.doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr198
    First published online: August 5, 2011
    Abstract. The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

    Review Paper
    Doerrer N, Ladics G, McClain S, Herouet-Guicheney C, Poulsen LK, Privalle L, Stagg N.(2010) Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: Executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]
    PMID: 20615445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
    ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 Fifteenth St., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

    Abstract
    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects - poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias - a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different locations. Data on the variability of allergenic proteins are important in defining the risk of potential allergenicity. Once established as a standardized assay, survey approaches such as the "-omics" techniques can be considered in a hypothesis-driven analysis of plants, such as determining unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) crops. However, the analysis should include both the GM and control varieties that have the same breeding history and exposure to the same environmental conditions. Importantly, the biological relevance and safety significance of changes in "-omic" data are still unknown. Furthermore, the current compositional assessment for evaluating the substantial equivalence of GM crops is robust, comprehensive, and a good tool for food safety assessments. The overall consensus of the workshop participants was that many "-omics" techniques are extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of biotechnology, and are valuable for hypothesis generation. However, there are many methodological shortcomings identified with "-omics" approaches, a paucity of reference materials, and a lack of focused strategy for their use that currently make them not conducive for the safety assessment of GM crops.
    Research paper.
    Representation, comparison, and interpretation of metabolome fingerprint data for total composition analysis and quality trait Investigation in potato cultivars.

    Beckmann Manfred, David P. Enot, David P. Overy, and John Draper (2007). J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (9): 3444-3451 DOI: 10.1021/jf0701842.
    Powerful algorithms are required to deal with the dimensionality of metabolomics data. Although many achieve high classification accuracy, the models they generate have limited value unless it can be demonstrated that they are reproducible and statistically relevant to the biological problem under investigation. Random forest (RF) generates models, without any requirement for dimensionality reduction or feature selection, in which individual variables are ranked for significance and displayed in an explicit manner. In metabolome fingerprinting by mass spectrometry, each metabolite can be represented by signals at several m/z. Exploiting a prior understanding of expected biochemical differences between sample classes, we aimed to develop meaningful metrics relevant to the significance both of the overall RF model and individual, potentially explanatory, signals. Pair-wise comparison of related plant genotypes with strong phenotypic differences demonstrated that robust models are not only reproducible but also logically structured, highlighting correlated m/z derived from just a small number of explanatory metabolites reflecting the biological differences between sample classes. RF models were also generated by using groupings of samples known to be increasingly phenotypically similar.
    Although classification accuracy was often reasonable, we demonstrated reproducibly in both Arabidopsis and potato a performance threshold based on margin statistics beyond which such models showed little structure indicative of either generalizibility or further biological interpretability. In a multiclass problem using 25 Arabidopsis genotypes, despite the complicating effects of ecotype background and secondary metabolome perturbations common to several mutations, the ranking of metabolome signals by RF provided scope for deeper interpretability.
    Blog post and research Paper
    Going green: lessons from plant genomics for human sequencing studies
    02/11/2011 at Genomes unzipped
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arabidopsis_thaliana.jpg 
    ...As human geneticists, it is all too easy to ignore papers published about non-human organisms – especially when those organisms are plants. After all, how much can the analysis of (say) [mustard cress plant] Arabidopsis genome diversity possibly assist in my quest to better understand the human genome and determine which genes cause disease? Quite a bit, as it happens: a fascinating recent paper in Nature demonstrates a number of lessons that we can learn from our distant green relatives.

    By exploiting the small genome size of Arabidopsis (~120 million bases, compared to the relatively gargantuan 3 billion bases of Homo sapiens), researchers were able to perform complete genome sequencing and transcriptome profiling in 18 different ecotypes of the plant (similar to what we would call strains of an animal)...

    In this paper, (cited below) Gan et al. were able to completely sequence the 18 Arabidopsis strains and – due to their relatively small size – assemble their genomes de novo (that is, reconstruct their genome sequences from scratch) without requiring comparison to a reference sequence. This allowed them to directly compare the 18 strains with the standard reference strain, Col-0, without the biases that arise from reference-based sequencing. One result in particular illustrates the value of de novo assembly: the analysis revealed that each species contained on average, 319 novel genes (or gene fragments) that were not part of the reference, which would have been completely missed using a standard resequencing approach.
    Categories: Guest Posts and Journal Club


    Written by Daniel MacArthur and Guest Author
    This is a guest post by Jeffrey Rosenfeld.



    Multiple reference genomes and transcriptomes for Arabidopsis thaliana
    Xiangchao Gan, Oliver Stegle, Jonas Behr, Joshua G. Steffen, Philipp Drewe, Katie L. Hildebrand, Rune Lyngsoe, Sebastian J. Schultheiss, Edward J. Osborne, Vipin T. Sreedharan, André Kahles, Regina Bohnert, Géraldine Jean, Paul Derwent, Paul Kersey, Eric J. Belfield, Nicholas P. Harberd, Eric Kemen, Christopher Toomajian, Paula X. Kover,  Richard M. Clark, Gunnar Rätsch & Richard Mott
    Nature 477, 419–423 (22 September 2011) doi:10.1038/nature10414
    Received 09 June 2011 Accepted 05 August 2011 Published online 28 August 2011
    Abstract
    Genetic differences between Arabidopsis thaliana accessions underlie the plant’s extensive phenotypic variation, and until now these have been interpreted largely in the context of the annotated reference accession Col-0. Here we report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the genomes of 18 natural A. thaliana accessions, and their transcriptomes. When assessed on the basis of the reference annotation, one-third of protein-coding genes are predicted to be disrupted in at least one accession. However, re-annotation of each genome revealed that alternative gene models often restore coding potential. Gene expression in seedlings differed for nearly half of expressed genes and was frequently associated with cis variants within 5 kilobases, as were intron retention alternative splicing events. Sequence and expression variation is most pronounced in genes that respond to the biotic environment. Our data further promote evolutionary and functional studies in A. thaliana, especially the MAGIC genetic reference population descended from these accessions. 

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